1,1-Dichloroethane

  • Asymmetrical dichloroethane
  • Ethylidene chloride
  • 1,1-Ethylidene dichloride
Formula
CH3CHCl2
Structure
Description
A colorless liquid with an ether-like odor.
Uses
As a solvent for plastics, oils and fats, cleaning agent, degreaser, in rubber cementing, as a fumigant and insecticide spray, in fabric spreading, in fire extinguishing, medication: formerly used as an anesthetic.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
75-34-3
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
200-863-5
EC Index Number
602-011-00-1
EC Class
Highly flammable; Harmful; Irritant; Dangerous for the Environment
RTECS
KI0175000
RTECS class
Tumorigen; Mutagen; Reproductive Effector
UN (DOT)
2362
Merck
12,3856
Beilstein/Gmelin
1696901
Beilstein Reference
4-01-00-00130
RCRA
U076
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-1518
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C2H4Cl2
Formula mass
98.96
Melting point, °C
-97.2
Boiling point, °C
57.3
Vapor pressure, mmHg
227 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
3.44
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 120 ppm
Critical temperature
261.5
Critical pressure
49.9
Density
1.174 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
6 g/L
Viscosity
0.49 cp (20 C)
Surface tension
24.75 g/s2 (20 C)
Refractive index
1.4167 (20 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
1.9
Heat of vaporization
28.4 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion
-1118 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep away from heat, sparks, and flame. Keep away from sources of ignition. Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Flammables-area.
B2
Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Use with adequate ventilation. Ground and bond containers when transferring material. Use spark-proof tools and explosion proof equipment. Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Empty containers retain product residue, (liquid and/or vapor), and can be dangerous. Keep container tightly closed. Avoid contact with heat, sparks and flame. Avoid ingestion and inhalation. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose empty containers to heat, sparks or open flames.
Protection
Eyes: Wear chemical goggles. Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators
A respiratory protection program that meets OSHA's 29 CFR 1910.134 and ANSI Z88.2 requirements or European Standard EN 149 must be followed whenever workplace conditions warrant a respirator's use.
Small spills/leaks
Absorb spill with inert material, (e.g., dry sand or earth), then place into a chemical waste container. Avoid runoff into storm sewers and ditches which lead to waterways. Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Remove all sources of ignition. Use a spark-proof tool. Provide ventilation. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors.
Stability
Stable under normal temperatures and pressures.
Incompatibilities
Oxidizing agents.
Decomposition
Hydrogen chloride, phosgene, carbon monoxide, irritating and toxic fumes and gases, carbon dioxide.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
-12
Autoignition, °C
458
Upper exp. limit, %
11.4
Lower exp. limit, %
5.4
Fire fighting
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Will burn if involved in a fire. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Extremely flammable liquid. Containers may explode in the heat of a fire. Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flame. Extinguishing media: For small fires, use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, water spray or alcohol-resistant foam. For large fires, use water spray, fog, or alcohol-resistant foam. Use water spray to cool fire-exposed containers. Water may be ineffective. Do NOT use straight streams of water.
Fire potential
Quite flammable.
Hazards
Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers.
Combustion products
When heated to decomposition emits highly toxic fumes to phosgene.
Health
1
 
Flammability
3
 
 
Reactivity
0
 

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
TLV: 100 ppm; 405 mg/m3 (ACGIH 1992-1993). OSHA PEL: TWA 100 ppm (400 mg/m3) NIOSH REL: TWA 100 ppm (400 mg/m3) See Appendix C (Chloroethanes) NIOSH IDLH: 3000 ppm
Carcinogin
CP65
Poison_Class
2
Exposure effects
Effects may be delayed.
   Ingestion
May cause gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. May be harmful if swallowed. Ingestion of large amounts may cause CNS depression.
   Inhalation
Causes respiratory tract irritation. The toxicological properties of this substance have not been fully investigated. Aspiration may lead to pulmonary edema. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. May cause burning sensation in the chest.
   Skin
May cause irritation and dermatitis. May cause cyanosis of the extremities.
   Eyes
Causes eye irritation. May cause chemical conjunctivitis and corneal damage.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid immediately. Do NOT induce vomiting. If conscious and alert, rinse mouth and drink 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water.
   Inhalation
Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. DO NOT use mouth-to-mouth respiration.
   Skin
Get medical aid. Flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse.
   Eyes
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid.

Transport.
UN number
2362
Response guide
Hazard class
3
Packing Group
II
 
USCG CHRIS Code
DCH
 
36 Halogenated hydrocarbons
Std. Transport #
4910523
 
IMO Chemical Code
17
IMO Pollution Category
D
IMO Hazard code
S