1,1,1-Trichloroethane

  • Methylchloroform
  • Chlorothene
  • Methyltrichloromethane
  • alpha-Trichloroethane
Formula
CH3CCl3
Structure
Description
Clear, colorless liquid with a mild chloroform-like odor.
Uses
Solvent.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
71-55-6
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
200-756-3
EC Index Number
602-013-00-2
EC Class
Harmful; Dangerous for the Environment
RTECS
KJ2975000
RTECS class
Agricultural Chemical and Pesticide; Tumorigen; Mutagen; Reproductive Effector; Human Data; Primary Irritant
UN (DOT)
2831
Merck
12,9766
Beilstein/Gmelin
1731614
Beilstein Reference
4-01-00-00138
RCRA
U226
EPA OPP
81201
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-2061
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C2H3Cl3
Formula mass
133.4
Melting point, °C
-32.5
Boiling point, °C
74
Vapor pressure, mmHg
100 (20 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
4.63
Evaporization number
12.8 (butyl acetate=1)
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 44 ppm
Critical temperature
311
Critical pressure
44.36
Density
1.31 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
4.4 mg/L (20 C)
Viscosity
0.72 cp (30 C)
Surface tension
25.67 g/s2 (21 C)
Refractive index
1.43838 (20 C)
Dipole moment
1.81 D (25 C)
Dielectric constant
7.33 (20 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
2.49
Heat of fusion
4.5 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization
32.5 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion
-1442 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep away from sources of ignition. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Do not store in aluminum containers.
D1B D2B
Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Use only in a well ventilated area. Avoid breathing dust, vapor, mist, or gas. Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Keep container tightly closed. Do not ingest or inhale.
Protection
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators
Wear a supplied air, full-facepiece respirator, airlined hood, or full-facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus. Breathing air quality must meet the requirements of the OSHA respiratory protection standard (29CFR1910.134). This substance has questionable warning properties. Where respirators are required, you must have a written program covering the basic requirements in the OSHA respirator standard. These include training, fit testing, medical approval, cleaning, maintenance, cartridge change schedules, etc. See 29CFR1910.134 for details.
Small spills/leaks
Avoid runoff into storm sewers and ditches which lead to waterways. Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Absorb spill using an absorbent, non-combustible material such as earth, sand, or vermiculite. Provide ventilation.
Stability
Requires inhibitor content to prevent corrosion of metals. Slowly hydrolyzes in water to form hydrochloric and acetic acid.
Incompatibilities
Metals, strong oxidizing agents, strong bases, active metals, aluminum, halocarbons, liquid oxygen, magnesium, sodium hydroxide, potassium, sodium, caustics, hydrochloric acid, water, nitrogen tetroxide, aluminum alloys, magnesium alloys, aluminum oxide + heavy metals.
Decomposition
Hydrogen chloride, phosgene, carbon monoxide, irritating and toxic fumes and gases, carbon dioxide.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
-1
Autoignition, °C
500
Upper exp. limit, %
16.0
Lower exp. limit, %
7.0
Fire fighting
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. Water runoff can cause environmental damage. Dike and collect water used to fight fire. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Extinguishing media: Use extinguishing media most appropriate for the surrounding fire. In case of fire, use water fog, dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or regular foam.
Fire potential
Slightly flammable at higher temperatures. Inhibited trichloroethanes have been found to have explosive limits, but ignition requires a high energy source. Once the source is removed, the vapor will continue to burn.
Hazards
Air/vapor mixtures may explode when ignited. Container may explode in heat of fire.
Combustion products
Toxic and irritating gases are generated in fires.
Health
2
 
Flammability
1
 
 
Reactivity
0
 

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
OSHA PEL: TWA 350 ppm (1900 mg/m3) NIOSH REL: C 350 ppm (1900 mg/m3) 15-minute See Appendix C (Chloroethanes) NIOSH IDLH: 700 ppm
Poison_Class
5
Exposure effects
Prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause defatting and dermatitis. May cause fetal effects. Laboratory experiments have resulted in mutagenic effects. Prolonged exposure may cause liver, kidney, and heart damage.
   Ingestion
Harmful if swallowed. Symptoms similar to inhalation will occur along with nausea, vomiting. Aspiration of material into the lungs can cause chemical pneumonitis which can be fatal. If aspirated, may be rapidly absorbed through the lungs and result in injury to other body systems.
   Inhalation
Inhalation of vapors will irritate the respiratory tract. Affects the central nervous system. Symptoms include headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea. Higher levels of exposure (> 5000 ppm) can cause irregular heart beat, kidney and liver damage, fall in blood pressure, unconsciousness and even death.
   Skin
Causes mild irritation and redness, especially on prolonged contact. Repeated contact may cause drying or flaking of the skin. May be absorbed through the skin.
   Eyes
Liquid and vapor cause irritation. Symptoms include tearing, redness, stinging, swelling.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Do NOT induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid.
   Inhalation
Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical aid. DO NOT use mouth-to-mouth respiration. If breathing has ceased apply artificial respiration using oxygen and a suitable mechanical device such as a bag and a mask.
   Skin
Get medical aid. Flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse.
   Eyes
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid immediately.

Transport.
UN number
2831
Response guide
Hazard class
6.1
Packing Group
III
 
USCG CHRIS Code
TCE
 
36 Halogenated hydrocarbons
Std. Transport #
4925182
 
IMO Chemical Code
17
IMO Pollution Category
C
IMO Hazard code
P