1,4-Dioxane

  • 1,4-Diethylene dioxide
  • Diethylene ether
Formula
C4H8O2
Structure
Description
Clear, colorless liquid with an ether-like odor, hygroscopic.
Uses
Wetting & dispersing agent in textile processing, dye-baths, stain & printing compositions, used in cleaning and detergent preparations, adhesives, cosmetics, deodorants, fumigants, emulsions & polishing compositions.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
123-91-1
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
204-661-8
EC Index Number
603-024-00-5
EC Class
Highly flammable; Carcinogenic Category 3; Irritant; Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking
R 11 19 36/37 40 66
S 9 16 36/37 46
RTECS
JG8225000
RTECS class
Tumorigen; Mutagen; Reproductive Effector; Human Data; Primary Irritant
UN (DOT)
1165
Merck
13,3330
Beilstein/Gmelin
102551
Beilstein Reference
5-19-01-00016
RCRA
U108
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-42670
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C4H8O2
Formula mass
88.11
Melting point, °C
11.8
Boiling point, °C
101.1
Vapor pressure, mmHg
27 (20 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
3.03
Saturation Concentration
39500 ppm (3.95%) at 20 C; 50250 ppm (5.03%) at 25 C (calculated)
Evaporization number
7.3 (diethyl ether = 1)
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 620 mg/m3
Critical temperature
314
Critical pressure
51.4
Density
1.304 g/cm3
Solubility in water
Soluble
Viscosity
1.20 cp (25 C)
Surface tension
30.86 g/s2 (40 C)
Refractive index
1.4175 (20 C)
Dipole moment
0.4 D (20 C)
Dielectric constant
2.2 (25 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
-0.27
Heat of fusion
12.8 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization
37.5 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion
-2362 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Flammables-area. After opening, purge container with nitrogen before reclosing. Periodically test for peroxide formation on long-term storage. Addition of water or appropriate reducing materials will lessen peroxide formation. Store protected from moisture.
B2 D2A D2B
Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Use with adequate ventilation. Use spark-proof tools and explosion proof equipment. Loosen closure cautiously before opening. Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Empty containers retain product residue, (liquid and/or vapor), and can be dangerous. If peroxide formation is suspected, do not open or move container. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose empty containers to heat, sparks or open flames.
Protection
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear nitrile-latex gloves, apron, and/or clothing. Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear nitrile-latex gloves, apron, and/or clothing. Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators
A respiratory protection program that meets OSHA's 29 CFR 1910.134 and ANSI Z88.2 requirements or European Standard EN 149 must be followed whenever workplace conditions warrant a respirator's use. Follow the OSHA respirator regulations found in 29CFR 1910.134 or European Standard EN 149. Always use a NIOSH or European Standard EN 149 approved respirator when necessary.
Small spills/leaks
Absorb spill with inert material, (e.g., dry sand or earth), then place into a chemical waste container. Avoid runoff into storm sewers and ditches which lead to waterways. Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Remove all sources of ignition. Use a spark-proof tool. Flush spill area with water. Provide ventilation. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors.
Disposal code
1
Stability
Stable in closed containers under nitrogen at room temperature. Anhydrous dioxane slowly reacts with atmospheric oxygen to form explosive peroxides. If these peroxides are concentrated by evaporation or distillation, there exists a serious risk of explosion.
Incompatibilities
Silver perchlorate, oxidizing agents, sulfur trioxide. Dioxane may react with hydrogen in the presence of Raney nickel above 210C.
Decomposition
Reacts with air to form explosive peroxides under certain conditions; exposure to sunlight accelerates this formation. Decomposes to carbon monoxide.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
11
Autoignition, °C
180
Upper exp. limit, %
22.0
Lower exp. limit, %
2.0
Fire fighting
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. May form explosive peroxides. Containers may explode if exposed to fire. Extinguishing media: For small fires, use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, water spray or alcohol-resistant foam. Water may be ineffective. For large fires, use water spray, fog or alcohol-resistant foam. Do NOT use straight streams of water. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out.
Fire potential
Very flammable. Dangerous when exposed to heat or flame.
Hazards
Vapor is heavier than air and may travel considerable distance to source of ignition and flash back..
Combustion products
During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Can release vapors that form explosive mixtures at temperatures above the flashpoint.
Health
2
 
Flammability
3
 
 
Reactivity
1
 

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
OSHA PEL: TWA 100 ppm (360 mg/m3) skin NIOSH REL: Ca C 1 ppm (3.6 mg/m3) 30-minute See Appendix A NIOSH IDLH: Potential occupational carcinogen 500 ppm
Carcinogin
G-A3, I-2B, N-2, CP65
Poison_Class
4
Exposure effects
Prolonged exposure may cause central nervous system depression, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal tenderness, and liver or kidney damage. Prolonged skin contact may cause dermatitis. Suspected human carcinogen based on animal data. Repeated inhalation exposures to low concentrations have been fatal.
   Ingestion
Sore throat, abdominal pain. Other symptoms parallel those from inhalation.
   Inhalation
Effects may be delayed. Highly toxic by inhalation. Easily absorbed through lungs. Symptoms include irritation of the respiratory tract, headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and narcosis. Can cause liver damage and brain and lung edema. Death may occur from kidney failure. Dioxane poisoning has poor warning properties. Olfactory fatigue may occur.
   Skin
Causes irritation to skin. Symptoms include redness, itching, and pain. May be absorbed through the skin with possible systemic effects.
   Eyes
Vapors cause eye irritation. Splashes cause severe irritation, possible corneal burns and eye damage.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid immediately.
   Inhalation
Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen.
   Skin
Get medical aid. Flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse.
   Eyes
Flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid immediately.

Transport.
UN number
1165
Response guide
Hazard class
3
Packing Group
II
 
USCG CHRIS Code
DOX
 
HS Code
2932 99 95
 
Std. Transport #
4909155
 
IMO Chemical Code
17
IMO Pollution Category
D
IMO Hazard code
S