2-Hydroxypropanenitrile

  • acetocyanohydrin
  • Ethylidene cyanohydrin
  • alpha-Hydroxypropionitrile
  • 2-Hydroxypropionitrile
  • Lactonitrile
Formula
C3H5NO
Structure
Description
Straw colored liquid.
Uses
Solvent, intermediate in production of ethyl acetate and lactic acid.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
78-97-7
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
201-163-2
RTECS
OD8225000
RTECS class
Other
Beilstein/Gmelin
605366
Beilstein Reference
3-03-00-00451
RCRA
D003
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-4783
Canada DSL/NDSL
NDSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C3H5NO
Formula mass
71.07
Melting point, °C
<-21
Boiling point, °C
182
Vapor pressure, mmHg
0.22 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
2.45
Odor Threshold Odor threshold .
Density
1.005 g/cm3 (0 C)
Solubility in water
Very soluble
Surface tension
36.38 g/s2 (20 C)
Refractive index
1.40374 (18.4 C)
pKa/pKb
11.38 (pKa)
Partition coefficient, pKow
-0.94
Heat of vaporization
48.8 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep in a cool, dry, dark location in a tightly sealed container or cylinder. Keep away from incompatible materials, ignition sources and untrained individuals. Secure and label area. Protect containers/cylinders from physical damage.
Handling
All chemicals should be considered hazardous. Avoid direct physical contact. Use appropriate, approved safety equipment. Untrained individuals should not handle this chemical or its container. Handling should occur in a chemical fume hood.
Protection
Chemical splash goggles in compliance with OSHA regulations are advised; however, OSHA regulations also permit other type safety glasses. Whre chemical resistant gloves. To prevent repeated or prolonged skin contact, wear impervious clothing and boots.
Respirators
Use NIOSH/MSHA approved respirator appropriate for exposure of concern.
Small spills/leaks
Caution : Lactonitrile toxicity can occur via ingestion, dermal/eye contact, or ingestion; death may occur within minutes. IMMEDIATELY begin administering 100% oxygen and rush victims to a health care facility. Toxic hydrogen cyanide gas may be released upon contact with alkali or when heated to decomposition. Do not breathe vapors or touch spilled material.
Stability
No data.
Incompatibilities
Incompatible with strong acids, strong bases and strong reducing agents Incompatible with strong oxidizers.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
65
Upper exp. limit, %
17.9
Lower exp. limit, %
2.7
Fire fighting
Foam, carbon dioxide, dry chemical.
Fire potential
It has moderate fire hazard when exposed to heat or flame.
Hazards
Cyanide fumes released when heated to decomposition. Avoid alkali, oxidizing material.
Health
4
 
Flammability
2
 
 
Reactivity
0
 

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
OSHA: PEL (8 h TWA): 5 mg/m3.
Poison_Class
3
Exposure effects
Initial presentation of cyanide poisoning may include hyperpnea and rapid breathing. Hypoventilation progressing to apnea may be seen in the later phases and is a major cause of death. Rapid heart rate and elevated blood pressure may be seen. Low heart rate and abnormally low blood pressure are seen in the late phases of cyanide poisoning. Headache, CNS stimulation with anxiety, agitation, and combative behavior, coma, and seizures may be seen. Most victims of acute poisoning either die acutely or fully recover.
   Ingestion
Nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain may occur, especially after ingestion.
   Inhalation
Hyperpnea and tachypnea may be noted initially. Hypoventilation progressing to apnea may be seen in the later phases and is a major cause of death.
   Skin
Lactonitrile can be absorbed through intact skin, leading to systemic cyanide poisoning.
   Eyes
Dilated pupils are common. Corneal edema may be seen. Retinal arteries and veins that appear equally red on funduscopic examination suggest the diagnosis. Accidental eye contamination with cyanide compounds may produce systemic symptoms.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
The possible benefit of early removal of some ingested material by cautious gastric lavage must be weighed against potential complications of bleeding or perforation. Activated charcoal activated charcoal binds most toxic agents and can decrease their systemic absorption if administered soon after ingestion. Activated charcoal: administer charcoal as a slurry (240 ml water/30 g charcoal). Usual dose: 25 to 100 g in adults/adolescents.
   Inhalation
Move patient to fresh air. Monitor for respiratory distress. If cough or difficulty breathing develops, evaluate for respiratory tract irritation, bronchitis, or pneumonitis. Administer oxygen and assist ventilation as required. Treat bronchospasm with beta2 agonist and corticosteroid aerosols.
   Skin
Remove contaminated clothing and wash exposed area thoroughly with soap and water. A physician should examine the area if irritation or pain persists. Lactonitrile can be absorbed and cause systemic cyanide poisoning by the dermal route. Systemic cyanide poisoning - it is possible that systemic cyanide poisoning may occur following significant dermal exposure.
   Eyes
Irrigate exposed eyes with copious amounts of tepid water for at least 15 minutes. If irritation, pain, swelling, lacrimation, or photophobia persist, the patient should be seen in a health care facility. Systemic cyanide poisoning - no reports of systemic cyanide in humans exposed to lactonitrile by the ocular route have been reported. However, administration of small quantities by the ocular route in animals is rapidly lethal. Patients exposed by this route should be observed for several hours in a controlled setting for the possible development of symptoms of cyanide poisoning. Treatment should include recommendations listed in the inhalation exposure section when appropriate.

Transport.
USCG CHRIS Code
LNI
 
IMO Chemical Code
17
IMO Pollution Category
B
IMO Hazard code
S/P