4-Oxopentanoic acid

  • Levulinic acid
  • 4-Ketovaleric acid
  • Laevulinic acid
  • 4-Oxovaleric acid
  • Levulic acid
Formula
CH3COCH2CH2COOH
Structure
Description
Colorless to light yellow solid.
Uses
Substance is used in organic syntheses.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
123-76-2
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
204-649-2
EC Class
harmful, irritant
R 22 36/38
S 26 36/37/39
RTECS
OI1575000
RTECS class
Primary Irritant
UN (DOT)
3261
Merck
13,5492
Beilstein/Gmelin
506796
Beilstein Reference
4-03-00-01560
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-7579
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C5H8O3
Formula mass
116.12
Melting point, °C
26 - 29
Boiling point, °C
245
Vapor pressure, mmHg
0.011 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
4.0
Density
1.14 g/cm3
Solubility in water
Very soluble
Surface tension
39.7 g/s2 (26 C)
Refractive index
1.4394 (15.8 C)
pKa/pKb
4.78 (pKa)
Partition coefficient, pKow
-0.49
Heat of vaporization
52.9 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion
-2417 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Store protected from light.
Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Use with adequate ventilation. Minimize dust generation and accumulation. Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Keep container tightly closed. Avoid ingestion and inhalation. Store protected from light.
Protection
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators
A respiratory protection program that meets OSHA's 29 CFR 1910.134 and ANSI Z88.2 requirements or European Standard EN 149 must be followed whenever workplace conditions warrant a respirator's use.
Small spills/leaks
Sweep up, then place into a suitable container for disposal. Avoid generating dusty conditions. Provide ventilation.
Disposal code
4
Stability
Stable at room temperature in closed containers under normal storage and handling conditions. May decompose when exposed to light.
Incompatibilities
Oxidizing agents, reducing agents, bases, direct light.
Decomposition
Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
137
Upper exp. limit, %
10.6
Lower exp. limit, %
1.8
Fire fighting
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. To extinguish fire use water spray, dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or appropriate foam.
Fire potential
Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes.
Hazards
Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas.
Combustion products
Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases.
Health
1
 
Flammability
0
 
 
Reactivity
0
 

Health.
Poison_Class
-
Exposure effects
Effects may be delayed.
   Ingestion
May cause gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. May be harmful if swallowed.
   Inhalation
Causes respiratory tract irritation. Can produce delayed pulmonary edema.
   Skin
Causes moderate skin irritation.
   Eyes
Causes eye irritation. May cause chemical conjunctivitis.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid immediately. Do NOT induce vomiting. If conscious and alert, rinse mouth and drink 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water.
   Inhalation
Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical aid. Do not use mouth-to-mouth respiration if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; induce artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device.
   Skin
Get medical aid. Flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse.
   Eyes
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid immediately.

Transport.
UN number
3261
Response guide
Hazard class
8
Packing Group
I; II; III
 
4. Organic acids
HS Code
2918 30 00