Acrylic acid

  • 2-Propenoic acid
  • Vinylformic acid
  • Ethylenecarboxylic acid
  • Acroleic acid
Formula
CH2=CHCOOH
Structure
Description
Clear, colorless liquid with a sharp, sweet, acrid, rancid, unpleasant odor.
Uses
Chemical intermediate for ethyl acrylate, n-butyl acrylate, methyl acrylate, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, for other specialty acrylates, eg, hydroxyethyl, monomer for polyacrylic acid & salts, eg, thickeners, comonomer with acrylamide for polymers used as flocculants, with ethylene for ion exchange resin polymers, with methyl ester for polymers, eg, thickeners, for other copolymers, eg, with itatonic acid.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
79-10-7
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
201-177-9
EC Index Number
607-061-00-8
EC Class
Flammable; Harmful; Corrosive; Dangerous for the Environment
R 10 21/22 35 50
S 26 36/37/39 45 61
RTECS
AS4375000
RTECS class
Tumorigen; Mutagen; Reproductive Effector; Primary Irritant
UN (DOT)
2218
Merck
13,132
Beilstein/Gmelin
635743
Beilstein Reference
4-02-00-01455
RCRA
U008
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-2118
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C3H4O2
Formula mass
72.06
Melting point, °C
13
Boiling point, °C
141.6
Vapor pressure, mmHg
4
Vapor density (air=1)
2.5
Saturation Concentration
0.4% at 20 C (calculated)
Evaporization number
1.0 (butyl acetate=1)
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 1.04 ppm
Critical temperature
342
Critical pressure
57
Density
1.06 g/cm3 (10 C)
Solubility in water
Soluble
Surface tension
28.1 g/s2 at 30 C
Refractive index
1.42142 (16 C)
pKa/pKb
4.25 (pKa)
Partition coefficient, pKow
0.35
Heat of fusion
9.0 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization
32.74 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion
-1368 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep in a cool, dry, dark location in a tightly sealed container or cylinder. Keep away from incompatible materials, ignition sources and untrained individuals. Secure and label area. Protect containers/cylinders from physical damage.
B3 D1A E F
Handling
All chemicals should be considered hazardous. Avoid direct physical contact. Use appropriate, approved safety equipment. Untrained individuals should not handle this chemical or its container. Handling should occur in a chemical fume hood.
Protection
Wear appropriate protective gloves, clothing and goggles.
Respirators
A full facepiece respirator with organic vapor cartridge may be worn up to 50 times the exposure limit or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. For emergencies or instances where the exposure levels are not known, use a full-facepiece positive-pressure, air-supplied respirator.
Small spills/leaks
Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Use water spray to knock-down vapors. Neutralize spilled material with crushed limestone, soda ash, or lime.
Disposal code
4
Stability
Stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage. Hazardous Polymerization may occur if contaminated, if heated, if in low oxygen atmosphere, or if not inhibited. Light may promote polymerization once started.
Incompatibilities
Strong oxidizing agents, strong bases, 2-aminoethanol, ammonium hydroxide, chlorosulfonic acid, ethylene diamine, ethyleneimine, and oleum.
Decomposition
Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may form when heated to decomposition.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
46
Autoignition, °C
390
Upper exp. limit, %
8
Lower exp. limit, %
2
Fire fighting
Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Solid streams of water may be ineffective. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Use alcohol foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide. Use water spray to knock-down vapors.
Fire potential
Flammable liquid. A fire hazard when exposed to heat or flame.
Hazards
Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers.
Combustion products
Toxic vapors are generated when heated May polymerize and explode
Health
3
 
Flammability
2
 
 
Reactivity
2
 

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
TLV (as TWA): 2 ppm; 5.9 mg/m3 A4 (skin) (ACGIH 1997). NIOSH REL: TWA 2 ppm (6 mg/m3) skin
Poison_Class
2
Exposure effects
Was neither embryotoxic nor teratogenic in rats by inhalation. Intraperitoneal doses in pregnant rats resulted in decreased birth weight, skeletal abnormalities, and resorptions.
   Ingestion
Highly toxic! May cause pain and burning in the mouth, pharynx, and stomach, vomiting diarrhea, and fall in blood pressure. Asphyxia may occur from edema of the glottis. May be destructive to the gastro-intestinal tract. Estimated lethal dose 5 milliliters.
   Inhalation
May be destructive to the mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract. Symptoms may include burning, coughing, wheezing, laryngitis, shortness of breath, headache, nausea, and vomiting. May be fatal as a result of spasm, inflammation and edema of the larynx and bronchi, chemical pneumonitis and pulmonary edema.
   Skin
Toxic! Corrosive! May cause irritation, inflammation, burns, and skin rashes. Absorption through the skin may cause systemic poisoning, nausea, and vomiting.
   Eyes
Corrosive! Vapors may cause irritation. Splashes from dilute solutions may cause burns and serious eye damage.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Corrosive chemicals will destroy the membranes of the mouth, throat, and esophagus and, in addition, have a high risk of being aspirated into the victim's lungs during vomiting which increases the medical problems. If the victim is conscious and not convulsing, give 1 or 2 glasses of water to dilute the chemical and IMMEDIATELY call a hospital or poison control center. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital. If the victim is convulsing or unconscious, do not give anything by mouth, ensure that the victim's airway is open and lay the victim on his/her side with the head lower than the body. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Transport the victim IMMEDIATELY to a hospital.
   Inhalation
IMMEDIATELY leave the contaminated area; take deep breaths of fresh air. IMMEDIATELY call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital even if no symptoms (such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, or burning in the mouth, throat, or chest) develop. Provide proper respiratory protection to rescuers entering an unknown atmosphere. Whenever possible, Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) should be used.
   Skin
IMMEDIATELY flood affected skin with water while removing and isolating all contaminated clothing. Gently wash all affected skin areas thoroughly with soap and water. IMMEDIATELY call a hospital or poison control center even if no symptoms (such as redness or irritation) develop. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital for treatment after washing the affected areas.
   Eyes
First check the victim for contact lenses and remove if present. Flush victim's eyes with water or normal saline solution for 20 to 30 minutes while simultaneously calling a hospital or poison control center. Do not put any ointments, oils, or medication in the victim's eyes without specific instructions from a physician. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim after flushing eyes to a hospital even if no symptoms (such as redness or irritation) develop.

Transport.
UN number
2218
Response guide
Hazard class
8
Packing Group
II
 
USCG CHRIS Code
ACR
 
HS Code
2916 11 10
 
Std. Transport #
4931405
 
IMO Chemical Code
17
IMO Pollution Category
D
IMO Hazard code
S