Acrylonitrile

  • Vinyl cyanide
  • Propenenitrile
  • Propenonitrile
  • Cyanoethylene
  • 2-propenenitrile
Formula
CH2=CHCN
Structure
Description
Colorless to pale yellow, volatile, liquid with a slightly pungent odor similar to peach pit kernels, garlic or onion.
Uses
In the plastics, surface coatings, & adhesives industries. As chemical intermediate in synthesis of antioxidants, pharmaceuticals, dyes, surface-active agents, extra. In organic synth to introduce cyanoethyl group. As modifier for natural polymers, as a pesticide fumigant for stored grain former use.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
107-13-1
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
203-466-5
EC Index Number
608-003-00-4
EC Class
Highly flammable; Carcinogenic Category 2; Toxic; Irritant; Sensitising; Dangerous for the Environment
R 45 11 23/24/25 37/38 41 43 51/53
S 9 16 53 45 61
RTECS
AT5250000
RTECS class
Agricultural Chemical and Pesticide; Tumorigen; Mutagen; Reproductive Effector; Human Data; Primary Irritant
UN (DOT)
1093
Merck
13,133
Beilstein/Gmelin
605310
Beilstein Reference
4-02-00-01473
RCRA
U009
EPA OPP
601
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-1049
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C3H3N
Formula mass
53.06
Melting point, °C
-83.55
Boiling point, °C
77.3
Vapor pressure, mmHg
97 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
1.9
Saturation Concentration
113500 ppm (11.35%) at 20 C; 142800 ppm (14.28%) at 25 C (calculated)
Evaporization number
4.54 (n-butyl acetate = 1)
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 21.4 ppm
Critical temperature
267
Critical pressure
45.99
Density
0.7951 g/cm3
Solubility in water
74.5 g/L
Viscosity
0.34 cp (25 C)
Surface tension
27.3 g/s2 (24 C)
Refractive index
1.38836 (20 C)
Dipole moment
3.88 D
Partition coefficient, pKow
0.25
Heat of vaporization
31.8 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion
-1718 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep away from heat and flame. Keep away from sources of ignition. Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Store outside or in a detached building.
B2 D1A D2A D2B F
Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Wash hands before eating. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Use only in a well ventilated area. Ground and bond containers when transferring material. Use spark-proof tools and explosion proof equipment. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Empty containers retain product residue, (liquid and/or vapor), and can be dangerous. Do not ingest or inhale. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose empty containers to heat, sparks or open flames.
Protection
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators
20 ppm Any chemical cartridge respirator with a full facepiece and organic vapor cartridge(s). Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece. 100 ppm Any chemical cartridge respirator with a full facepiece and organic vapor cartridge(s). Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece. Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece. 4000 ppm Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece that is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode. For Unknown Concentrations or Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health - Any supplied-air respirator with full facepiece and operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with a separate escape supply. Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode. Escape - Any chemical cartridge respirator with a full facepiece and organic vapor cartridge(s). Any self-contained breathing apparatus.
Small spills/leaks
Absorb spill with inert material, (e.g., dry sand or earth), then place into a chemical waste container. Avoid runoff into storm sewers and ditches which lead to waterways. Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Scoop up with a nonsparking tool, then place into a suitable container for disposal. Remove all sources of ignition. Provide ventilation. Use water spray to reduce vapors or divert vapor cloud drift.
Disposal code
9
Stability
Stable under normal shipping and handling conditions. However, it may undergo explosive polymerization if uninhibited. The substance polymerizes due to heating, under the influence of light, bases and peroxides. Heating may cause violent combustion or explosion.
Incompatibilities
Oxidizing agents, acids, bases, copper, copper alloys, heat, light, bromine, silver nitrate, benzyl trimethylammonium hydroxide, peroxides.
Decomposition
Hydrogen cyanide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
-4.4
Autoignition, °C
480
Upper exp. limit, %
17
Lower exp. limit, %
2.8
Fire fighting
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Can release vapors that form explosive mixtures at temperatures above the flashpoint. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Water may be ineffective. Material is lighter than water and a fire may be spread by the use of water. Containers may explode in the heat of a fire. May polymerize explosively when involved in a fire. Extinguishing media: For small fires, use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, water spray or alcohol-resistant foam. For large fires, use water spray, fog or alcohol-resistant foam. Do NOT use straight streams of water. Cool containers with water.
Fire potential
Very flammable. Combustion imminent.
Hazards
Materials are too dangerous to health to expose fire fighters. A few whiffs of vapor could cause death or vapor or liquid could be fatal on penetrating the fire fighter's normal full protective clothing. The normal full protective clothing and breathing apparatus available to the average fire department will not provide adequate protection against inhalation or skin contact with these materials. Explosion hazard is moderate. It is flammable and explosive at normal room temperatures. Can react violently with strong acids, amines, strong alkalis. Vapors may travel considerable distance to source of ignition and flash back.
Combustion products
Combustion by-products include hydrogen cyanide and oxides of nitrogens.
Health
4
 
Flammability
3
 
 
Reactivity
2
 

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
OSHA PEL: 1910.1045 TWA 2 ppm C 10 ppm 15-minute skin NIOSH REL: Ca TWA 1 ppm C 10 ppm 15-minute skin See Appendix A NIOSH IDLH: Potential occupational carcinogen 85 ppm
Carcinogin
O, G-A3, I-2B, N-2, CP65
Poison_Class
1*
Exposure effects
May cause cancer in humans. Prolonged skin contact results in systemic toxicity and ulceration after a latency period of several hours with the affected skin resembling a second degree thermal burn.
   Ingestion
Abdominal pain. Headache. Nausea. Shortness of breath. Vomiting. Weakness (further see Inhalation).
   Inhalation
May be fatal if inhaled. Inhalation of high concentrations may cause central nervous system effects characterized by headache, dizziness, unconsciousness and coma. May cause cyanosis, characterized by bluish-colored skin. May cause irritation of the respiratory tract with burning pain in the nose and throat, coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath and pulmonary edema. Exposure to high concentrations may cause weakness, asphyxia, and death.
   Skin
Causes skin irritation. Harmful if absorbed through the skin. May cause skin sensitization, an allergic reaction, which becomes evident upon re-exposure to this material. Prolonged and/or repeated contact may cause defatting of the skin and dermatitis. Toxic in contact with skin.
   Eyes
Causes severe eye irritation. May result in corneal injury. Lachrymator. Causes redness and pain.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Do NOT induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid immediately.
   Inhalation
Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. DO NOT use mouth-to-mouth respiration. If breathing has ceased apply artificial respiration using oxygen and a suitable mechanical device such as a bag and a mask.
   Skin
Get medical aid immediately. Immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes.
   Eyes
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid immediately.

Transport.
UN number
1093
Response guide
Hazard class
3
Packing Group
I
 
USCG CHRIS Code
ACN
 
15 Substituted allyls
HS Code
2926 10 00
 
Std. Transport #
4906420
 
IMO Pollution Category
B
IMO Hazard code
S/P