Acyclovir

  • Aciclovir
  • Acycloguanosine
  • 2-Amino-1,9-dihydro-9-((2-Hydroxyethoxy)methyl)-6H-purin-6-one
  • 9-((2-Hydroxyethoxy)methyl)guanine
  • Vipral
  • Virorax
Formula
C8H11N5O3
Structure
Description
Crystals from methanol.
Uses
Medication.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
59277-89-3
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
261-685-1
RTECS
UP0791400
RTECS class
Tumorigen; Drug; Mutagen; Reproductive Effector; Human Data
Merck
12,148
Beilstein/Gmelin
1219402
Beilstein Reference
5-26-18-00045
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C8H11N5O3
Formula mass
225.21
Decomposition point, °C
250
Solubility in water
Very soluble
pKa/pKb
9.18 (pKa)
Partition coefficient, pKow
-1.76
Heat of fusion
26.9 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep in a cool, dry, dark location in a tightly sealed container or cylinder. Keep away from incompatible materials, ignition sources and untrained individuals. Secure and label area. Protect containers/cylinders from physical damage.
Handling
All chemicals should be considered hazardous. Avoid direct physical contact. Use appropriate, approved safety equipment. Untrained individuals should not handle this chemical or its container. Handling should occur in a chemical fume hood.
Protection
Chemical splash goggles in compliance with OSHA regulations are advised; however, OSHA regulations also permit other type safety glasses. Whre chemical resistant gloves. To prevent repeated or prolonged skin contact, wear impervious clothing and boots.
Respirators
Use NIOSH/MSHA approved respirator appropriate for exposure of concern.
Small spills/leaks
Evacuate area and ventilate. Wear protective equipment. If required, use an inert absrobent. Sweep up and place in an appropriate container for disposal. Wash contaminated surfaces.
Stability
No data.
Incompatibilities
Strong oxidizing agents.

Fire.
Fire fighting
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Use agent most appropriate to extinguish fire.

Health.
Exposure effects
adverse effects include neurotoxicity which resembles an extension of viral infection into the central nervous system. Most commonly, mental status changes and involuntary movements occur. Neurologic toxicity is generally reversible. Seizures have been reported following overdose, but are rare. Lethargy, fatigue, irritability, depression, agitation, stupor and coma have been reported following intravenous acyclovir, particularly rapid infusions. Hallucinations may occur. Occasional myoclonus with muscle fasciculations, hyperactive tendon reflexes, and tremor have been noted with iv use. Headache is common with high doses of these agents.
   Ingestion
Nausea and vomiting are common adverse effects of high-dose therapy with these agents.
   Skin
Rashes have been seen after therapeutic administration. Reactions at the injection site have also been seen.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Seek medical attention. If individual is drowsy or unconscious, do not give anything by mouth; place individual on the left side with the head down. Contact a physician, medical facility, or poison control center for advice about whether to induce vomiting. If possible, do not leave individual unattended.
   Inhalation
If symptoms develop, move individual away from exposure and into fresh air. If symptoms persist, seek medical attention. If breathing is difficult, administer oxygen. Keep person warm and quiet; seek immediate medical attention.
   Skin
Remove contaminated clothing. Wash exposed area with soap and water. If symptoms persist, seek medical attention. Launder clothing before reuse.
   Eyes
If symptoms develop, immediately move individual away from exposure and into fresh air. Flush eyes gently with water for at least 15 minutes while holding eyelids apart; seek immediate medical attention.

Transport.