Ammonia, solution, with more than 35% but not more than 50% Ammonia
- Aqua ammonia
- Ammonium hydrate
- Ammonia, aqueous solution
- Ammonium hydroxide
Colorless to milky colored liquid, strong pungent odor of ammonia gas.
Textiles, manufacture of rayon, rubber, condensation polymerization, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, photography (development of latent images), ammonia soaps, lubricants, fireproofing wood, ink mfr, ammonium compound, saponifying fats & oils, organic synth, detergent, household cleanser, food additive.
Registry Numbers and Inventories.
EC Index Number
Corrosive; Dangerous for the Environment
R 34 50
S 26 36/37/39 45 61
Mutagen; Human Data; Primary Irritant
Swiss Giftliste 1
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Melting point, °C
Boiling point, °C
Vapor pressure, mmHg
148000 ppm (14.8%) (10% solution) at 20 C; 291500 ppm (29%) (19.1%) at 21.1 C; 732500 ppm (73.3%) (28.8%) at 21.1 C (calculated)
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 34 ppm
Solubility in water
Hazards and Protection.
Do not store in direct sunlight. Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Corrosives area.
Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Use only in a well ventilated area. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Keep container tightly closed. Do not ingest or inhale. Discard contaminated shoes.
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Follow the OSHA respirator regulations found in 29CFR 1910.134 or European Standard EN 149. Always use a NIOSH or European Standard EN 149 approved respirator when necessary.
Absorb spill with inert material, (e.g., dry sand or earth), then place into a chemical waste container. Neutralize spill with a weak acid such as vinegar or acetic acid. Avoid runoff into storm sewers and ditches which lead to waterways. Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Provide ventilation.
Stable under normal temperatures and pressures.
Acrolein, acrylic acid, chlorosulfonic acid, dimethyl sulfate, fluorine, gold + aqua regia, hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, iodine, nitric acid, oleum, propiolactone, propylene oxide, silver nitrate, silver oxide, silver oxide + ethyl alcohol, nitromethane, silver permanganate, sulfuric acid, halogens. Forms explosive compounds with many heavy metals and halide salts.
Nitric oxide (NOx) and ammonia (NH3) fumes.
Upper exp. limit, %
Lower exp. limit, %
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated. Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Extinguishing media: For small fires, use water spray, dry chemical, carbon dioxide or chemical foam. Do NOT get water inside containers. For large fires, use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, alcohol-resistant foam, or water spray. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out.
Slightly flammable. NH3 fumes are flammable.
Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated.
Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes.
Chronic ingestion may cause effects similar to those of acute ingestion. Prolonged or repeated exposure may cause corneal damage and the development of cataracts and glaucoma.
Harmful if swallowed. May cause severe and permanent damage to the digestive tract. Causes gastrointestinal tract burns. Causes throat constriction, vomiting, convulsions, and shock.
Effects may be delayed. Causes severe irritation of upper respiratory tract with coughing, burns, breathing difficulty, and possible coma. Brief exposure to 5000 ppm can be fatal.
Causes severe skin irritation. Causes skin burns. May cause deep, penetrating ulcers of the skin. Contact with the skin may cause staining, inflammation, and thickening of the skin.
Contact with liquid or vapor causes severe burns and possible irreversible eye damage.
Do NOT induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid immediately.
Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. DO NOT use mouth-to-mouth respiration. If breathing has ceased apply artificial respiration using oxygen and a suitable mechanical device such as a bag and a mask.
Get medical aid immediately. Discard contaminated clothing in a manner which limits further exposure. Rinse area with large amounts of water for at least 15 minutes.
Get medical aid immediately. Do NOT allow victim to rub or keep eyes closed. Extensive irrigation is required (at least 30 minutes).