Ammonia

Formula
H3N
Structure
Description
Colorless gas with a pungent odor.
Uses
Manufacture nitric acid, explosives, synthetic fibers, fertilizers, in refrigeration & chemical industry.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
7664-41-7
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
231-635-3
EC Index Number
007-001-00-5
EC Class
Flammable; Toxic; Corrosive; Dangerous for the Environment
RTECS
BO0875000
RTECS class
Agricultural Chemical and Pesticide; Tumorigen; Mutagen; Human Data
UN (DOT)
1005
Merck
12,517
Beilstein/Gmelin
79 (G)
EPA OPP
5302
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-1099
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
H3N
Formula mass
17.03
Melting point, °C
-77
Boiling point, °C
-33
Decomposition point, °C
500
Vapor pressure, mmHg
7510 (25 C)
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 0.0266 mg/m3
Critical temperature
132.4
Critical pressure
111.5
Density
0.77 g/cm3
Solubility in water
54 g/100 mL
Viscosity
0.475 cp
Surface tension
23.4 g/s2 at 11.1 C
Refractive index
1.355
Dielectric constant
3.03 (-150 C)
pKa/pKb
4.75 (pKb)
Thermal expansion
0.0028/K at 0 C
Heat of fusion
58.1 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization
23.3 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion
-316 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep in a cool, dry, dark location in a tightly sealed container or cylinder. Keep away from incompatible materials, ignition sources and untrained individuals. Secure and label area. Protect containers/cylinders from physical damage.
A B1 D1A E
Handling
All chemicals should be considered hazardous. Avoid direct physical contact. Use appropriate, approved safety equipment. Untrained individuals should not handle this chemical or its container. Handling should occur in a chemical fume hood.
Protection
Wear appropriate protective gloves, clothing and goggles.
Respirators
Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA).
Small spills/leaks
Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard. Use water spray to knock-down vapors. Vapor knockdown water is corrosive or toxic and should be diked for containment. Land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material. Dike surface flow using soil, sand bags, foamed polyurethane, or foamed concrete. Absorb bulk liquid with fly ash or cement powder. Neutralize with vinegar or other dilute acid. Water spill: Neutralize with dilute acid. Use mechanical dredges or lifts to remove immobilized masses of pollutants and precipitates.
Stability
Stable. Reactive only under extreme conditions. Reacts vigorously with oxidizing materials..
Incompatibilities
Reacts violently or produces explosive products with fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine and bromine pentafluoride and chlorine trifluoride May react violently with boron halides, ethylene oxide (polymerization), perchlorates and strong oxidizing agents (chromyl chloride, chromium trioxide, chromic acid, nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, chlorates, fluorine, nitrogen oxide, liquid oxygen).
Decomposition
Shock-sensitive compounds are formed with mercury, silver and gold oxides.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
11
Autoignition, °C
651
Upper exp. limit, %
30
Lower exp. limit, %
15
Fire fighting
Wear positive pressure breathing apparatus and full protective clothing.Small fires: dry chemical or carbon dioxide. Large fires: water spray, fog or foam. Apply water gently to the surface. Do not get water inside container. Move container from fire area if you can do it without risk. Stay away from ends of tanks. Cool containers that are exposed to flames with water from the side until well after fire is out. Isolate area until gas has dispersed.
Fire potential
Slightly flammable. Will burn at high concentration. At 1290 fahrenheit or in presence of electric spark decomposes into n and h. Forms flammable mixtures with air. Presence of combustibles increases hazard.
Hazards
Mixing of ammonia with several chemicals can cause severe fire hazards and/or explosions. Ammonia in container may explode in heat of fire. Incompatible with many materials including silver and gold salts, halogens, alkali metals, nitrogen trichloride, potassium chlorate, chromyl chloride, oxygen halides, acid vapors, azides, ethylene oxide, picric acid and many other chemicals. Mixing with other chemicals and water. Hazardous polymerization may not occur.
Health
3
 
Flammability
1
 
 
Reactivity
0
 

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
OSHA PEL: TWA 50 ppm (35 mg/m3) NIOSH REL: TWA 25 ppm (18 mg/m3) ST 35 ppm (27 mg/m3) NIOSH IDLH: 300 ppm
Poison_Class
2
Exposure effects
Increases in blood pressure and pulse have been reported. An altered mental status (coma) may be seen, but is not characteristic unless hypoxemia occurs. Seizures may occur with extensive absorption. Decreased egg production has occurred in experimental animals. Ammonia crosses the ovine placental barrier. <br>No information about possible male reproductive effects was found in available references.
   Ingestion
Nausea and vomiting occur frequently following ingestion. Swelling of the lips, mouth, and larynx, and oral or esophageal burns may occur if concentrated ammonia solutions are ingested.
   Inhalation
Vapors are extremely irritating and corrosive.
   Skin
Concentrated ammonia may produce liquifaction necrosis and deep penetrating burns.
   Eyes
A small quantity in the eye will cause permanent damage. Also frostbite. Vapor causes a burning sensation and irritation. Cold vapor may cause frostbite

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Seek medical assistance.
   Inhalation
Move victim to fresh air. Apply artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; induce artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Effects may be delayed.
   Skin
Remove contaminated clothing and wash exposed area thoroughly with soap and water. A physician should examine the area if irritation or pain persists.
   Eyes
In case of contact with liquefied gas, thaw frosted parts with lukewarm water Immediately flush skin with running water for at least 20 minutes.

Transport.
UN number
1005
Response guide
Hazard class
2.3
PRTC
T
USCG CHRIS Code
AMA
 
Std. Transport #
4904220 4904240 4904275
 
IMO Gas Code
B