Ammonium chloride

  • Ammonium muriate
  • Sal ammoniac
  • Salmiac
  • Amchlor
Formula
NH4Cl
Structure
Description
Odorless, colorless crystals or white, granular powder, slightly hygroscopic.
Uses
As flux for coating sheet iron with zinc, tinning, in dry & leclanche batteries, dyeing, freezing mixtures, electroplating, to clean soldering irons, safety explosives, lustering cotton, tanning, in washing powders, manufacturing dyes, in cement for iron pipes, for snow treatment (slows melting on ski slopes), therapeutic: systemic acidifier, vet: expectorant, diaphoretic, acidifying diuretic.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
12125-02-9
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
235-186-4
EC Index Number
017-014-00-8
EC Class
Harmful; Irritant
R 22 36
RTECS
BP4550000
RTECS class
Drug; Mutagen; Human Data; Primary Irritant
UN (DOT)
9085
Merck
13,510
Beilstein/Gmelin
10120 (G)
EPA OPP
129014
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-3660
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
ClH4N
Formula mass
53.49
Melting point, °C
335
Vapor pressure, mmHg
892.5 (346 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
1.9
Evaporization number
Does not form a vapour
Odor Threshold Odor threshold Odorless
Density
1.5256 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
283 g/L
Thermal expansion
0.00009/K

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Store below 40C.
Insufficient information
Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Use with adequate ventilation. Minimize dust generation and accumulation. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Keep container tightly closed. Avoid ingestion and inhalation.
Protection
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear impervious gloves. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators
Follow the OSHA respirator regulations found in 29CFR 1910.134 or European Standard EN 149. Always use a NIOSH or European Standard EN 149 approved respirator when necessary.
Small spills/leaks
Vacuum or sweep up material and place into a suitable disposal container. Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Avoid generating dusty conditions. Provide ventilation.
Stability
Stable at room temperature in closed containers under normal storage and handling conditions.
Incompatibilities
Acids, alkalis, and their associated carbonates. Substance reacts with lead and silver salts to form a fulminating compound. Substance reacts with ammonium compounds, bromine pentafluoride, bromine trifluoride, hydrogen cyanide, iodine heptafluoride, nitrates, and potassium chlorate.
Decomposition
Irritating and toxic fumes and gases, ammonia and hydrochloric acid fumes.

Fire.
Autoignition, °C
> 400
Fire fighting
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Substance is noncombustible. Containers may explode in the heat of a fire. May polymerize explosively when involved in a fire. Extinguishing media: For small fires, use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, water spray or alcohol-resistant foam. Substance is noncombustible; use agent most appropriate to extinguish surrounding fire. For large fires, use water spray, fog or alcohol-resistant foam. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out.
Fire potential
May burn but does not ignite readily.
Hazards
Containers may explode when heated.
Combustion products
Toxic and irritating ammonia and hydrogen chloride gases may form in fire.
Health
1
 
Flammability
0
 
 
Reactivity
0
 

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
TLV (as fume): ppm; 10 mg/m3 (as TWA); 20 mg/m3 (as STEL) (ACGIH 1992-1993). NIOSH REL: TWA 10 mg/m3 ST 20 mg/m3
Poison_Class
4
Exposure effects
Prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause dermatitis.
   Ingestion
May cause irritation of the digestive tract. May cause systemic toxicity with acidosis. May be harmful if swallowed.
   Inhalation
If heated, dust or fume may cause respiratory tract irritation.
   Skin
May cause skin irritation.
   Eyes
Causes eye irritation.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid.
   Inhalation
Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical aid.
   Skin
Flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Get medical aid if irritation develops or persists. Wash clothing before reuse.
   Eyes
Flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid immediately.

Transport.
UN number
9085
Response guide
Hazard class
9.2
USCG CHRIS Code
AMC
 
HS Code
2827 10 00
 
Std. Transport #
4966317