Carbon dioxide, solid

  • Dry ice
  • Carbonic anhydride
Formula
CO2
Structure
Description
White solid.
Uses
Refrigerant, processing of foods, preserving foods, crusting of food, cryogenic freezing of food, prodn of urea, sodium carbonate (solvay process), methanol, carbonic acid, lead carbonate, potassium carbonate, potassium bicarbonate, ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate, sodium salicylate, carbonated petroleum, hydrocarbon products, provides an inert atmosphere for fire extinguishers, refinery products, petroleum products, displacing oxygen to prevent deterioration & flavor loss, in high pressure applications, oil well stimulation, in livestock slaughtering, as fertilizer, hardening of molds for metal castings.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
124-38-9
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
204-696-9
RTECS
FF6400000
RTECS class
Reproductive Effector; Human Data
UN (DOT)
2187
Merck
12,1857
Beilstein/Gmelin
989 (G)
EPA OPP
16601
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-2334
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
CO2
Formula mass
44.00
Sublimation point, °C
-78.4
Vapor pressure, mmHg
48300 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
1.65 (20 C)
Odor Threshold Odor threshold Odorless
Critical temperature
31
Critical pressure
72.9
Density
1.56 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
880 g/L
Viscosity
20.3x10-6 pa-s at 20C
Surface tension
0.0162 newtons/meter @ melting point
Refractive index
1.1120 (40 C)
Dipole moment
1.38 D
Dielectric constant
1.42
Partition coefficient, pKow
0.83
Thermal expansion
0.0036672/K (0 C)
Heat of fusion
7.9 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization
16.9 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep in a cool, dry, dark location in a tightly sealed, insulated container. Keep away from incompatible materials, ignition sources and untrained individuals. Secure and label area. Protect containers from physical damage.
Handling
Containers of this material may be hazardous when emptied. Since emptied containers retain product residues (vapor, liquid, and/or solid), all hazard precautions given in the data sheet must be observed.
Protection
Wear appropriate protective gloves, clothing and goggles. Always wear thermal protective clothing when handling refrigerated/cryogenic liquids.
Respirators
Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA).
Small spills/leaks
Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard.
Stability
Gas is not affected by heat until temperature about 2000 C.
Incompatibilities
None.
Decomposition
None.

Fire.
Fire fighting
Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. (Material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty.) Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible.
Fire potential
Noncombustible gas.
Hazards
Containers may explode when heated. Ruptured cylinders may rocket.

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
OSHA PEL: TWA 5000 ppm (9000 mg/m3) NIOSH REL: TWA 5000 ppm (9000 mg/m3) ST 30,000 ppm (54,000 mg/m3) NIOSH IDLH: 40,000 ppm
Poison_Class
5
Exposure effects
Rapid breathing and rapid heart rate are common. In severe cases abnormally low blood pressure, apnea, and cardiac arrest develop. Various disturbances including headache, dizziness, mood disturbances, numbness of the extremities, sleepiness, mental confusion, poor judgement and coordination, and memory loss may occur. Prolonged or severe hypoxia results in unconsciousness. Prolonged asphyxia may produce CNS injury. Hemiparesis has been reported with volatile substance abuse. Cerebral edema with brainstem herniation may occur. Seizures have been reported following intentional inhalation.
   Ingestion
Nausea, vomiting, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage may develop.
   Inhalation
Hyperventilation may develop.
   Skin
Dermal exposure may cause frostbite injury. Severe tissue burns have been reported.
   Eyes
Decreases in night vision, visual acuity, and visual fields (tunnel vision) may occur. Frothy mucous may be seen.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Seek medical assistance.
   Inhalation
Administer 100% humidified supplemental oxygen with assisted ventilation as required. If hypoxia has been severe or prolonged, carefully evaluate for neurologic sequelae and provide supportive treatment as indicated.
   Skin
Rewarming and a variety of topical treatments are indicated for frostbite injury. See main section for more information.
   Eyes
Irrigate exposed eyes with copious amounts of tepid water for at least 15 minutes. If irritation, pain, swelling, lacrimation, or photophobia persist, the patient should be seen in a health care facility.

Transport.
UN number
2187
Response guide
Hazard class
2.2
USCG CHRIS Code
CDO
 
Std. Transport #
4904510