Chloroform

  • Trichloromethane
  • Methane trichloride
  • Formyl chloride
  • Methyl trichloride
Formula
CHCl3
Structure
Description
Clear, colorless liquid with a characteristic pleasant, sweet, ethereal odor.
Uses
Chloroform is now used primarily in the manufacture of hcfc-22, monochlorodifluoromethane, a refrigerant and as a raw material for polytetrafluoroethylene plastics.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
67-66-3
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
200-663-8
EC Index Number
602-006-00-4
EC Class
Harmful; Irritant; Carcinogenic Category 3
R 22 38 40 48/20/22
RTECS
FS9100000
RTECS class
Agricultural Chemical and Pesticide; Tumorigen; Drug; Mutagen; Reproductive Effector; Human Data; Primary Irritant
UN (DOT)
1888
Merck
13,2160
Beilstein/Gmelin
1731042
Beilstein Reference
4-01-00-00042
RCRA
U044
EPA OPP
20701
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-1411
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
CHCl3
Formula mass
119.38
Melting point, °C
-63
Boiling point, °C
61.7
Vapor pressure, mmHg
200 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
4.1
Saturation Concentration
210,000 ppm (21%) at 20 C; 257,000 ppm (25.7%) at 25 C (calculated)
Evaporization number
7.6 (n-butyl acetate = 1)
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 3.30 mg/L
Critical temperature
264
Critical pressure
3.4
Density
1.4832 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
8 g/L
Viscosity
0.53 cp (25 C)
Surface tension
27.1 g/s2
Refractive index
1.4476 (20 C)
Dipole moment
1.01 D (20 C)
Dielectric constant
4.8 (20 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
1.97
Heat of fusion
9.5 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization
15.9 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Do not store in direct sunlight. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Keep away from acids. Do not store near alkaline substances. Separate from strong mineral acids.
D1B D2A D2B
Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Use only in a well ventilated area. Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Do not breathe dust, vapor, mist, or gas. Do not ingest or inhale. Store protected from light.
Protection
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators
A respiratory protection program that meets OSHA's 29 CFR 1910.134 and ANSI Z88.2 requirements or European Standard EN 149 must be followed whenever workplace conditions warrant a respirator's use.
Small spills/leaks
Absorb spill with inert material, (e.g., dry sand or earth), then place into a chemical waste container. Avoid runoff into storm sewers and ditches which lead to waterways. Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Provide ventilation.
Stability
Stable at room temperature in closed containers under normal storage and handling conditions. Light sensitive.
Incompatibilities
Strong oxidizing agents, aluminum, fluorine, magnesium, sodium potassium, lithium, caustics, dinitrogen tetraoxide, sodium + methanol, potassium-tert-butoxide, chemically active metals, Attacks some forms of plastics, rubbers, and coatings., nitrogen tetroxide, acetone + alkali, disilane, perchloric acid + phosphorus pentoxide, sodium methylate, triisopropylphosphine, sodium methoxide + methanol.
Decomposition
Hydrogen chloride, irritating and toxic fumes and gases, carbon dioxide, chlorine, phosgene gas.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
-22
Autoignition, °C
982
Upper exp. limit, %
12.9
Fire fighting
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Substance is nonflammable. Extinguishing media: Use extinguishing media most appropriate for the surrounding fire. Do NOT get water inside containers. Do NOT use straight streams of water. For small fires, use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or water spray. For large fires, use water spray, fog or regular foam. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out.
Fire potential
Slight when exposed to high heat. Will not support combustion.
Hazards
Container may explode in the heat of fire. When heated it liberates phosgene, hydrogen chloride, chlorine and toxic and corrosive oxides of carbon and chlorine. Chloroform explodes when in contact with aluminum powder or magnesium powder or with alkali metals (e.g., lithium, sodium, and potassium) and dinitrogen tetroxide. It reacts vigorously with acetone in the presence of potassium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide. It is oxidized by strong oxidizers such as chromic acid forming phosgene and chlorine. It reacts vigorously with triisopropylphosphine. It develops acidity from prolonged exposure to air and light.
Combustion products
Liberates phosgene when heated or involved in fire.
Health
2
 
Flammability
0
 
 
Reactivity
0
 

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
OSHA PEL: C 50 ppm (240 mg/m3) NIOSH REL: Ca ST 2 ppm (9.78 mg/m3) 60-minute See Appendix A NIOSH IDLH: Potential occupational carcinogen 500 ppm
Carcinogin
G-A3, I-2B, N-2, CP65
Poison_Class
1*
Exposure effects
Possible cancer hazard based on tests with laboratory animals. Prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause dermatitis. May cause reproductive and fetal effects. Effects may be delayed. Laboratory experiments have resulted in mutagenic effects. Toxicity may be increased by exposure to alcohol, steroids, and ketones. Prolonged exposure may cause liver, kidney, and heart damage.
   Ingestion
Causes severe burning in mouth and throat, pain in the chest and vomiting. Large quantities may cause symptoms similar to inhalation.
   Inhalation
Acts as a relatively potent anesthetic. Irritates respiratory tract and causes central nervous system effects, including headache, drowsiness, dizziness. Exposure to higher concentrations may result in unconsciousness and even death. May cause liver injury and blood disorders. Prolonged exposure may lead to death due to irregular heart beat and kidney and liver disorders.
   Skin
Causes skin irritation resulting in redness and pain. Removes natural oils. May be absorbed through skin.
   Eyes
Vapors causes pain and irritation to eyes. Splashes may cause severe irritation and possible eye damage.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Do NOT induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid immediately.
   Inhalation
Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen.
   Skin
Get medical aid. Flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse.
   Eyes
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid.

Transport.
UN number
1888
Response guide
Hazard class
6.1
Packing Group
III
 
USCG CHRIS Code
CRF
 
36 Halogenated hydrocarbons
HS Code
2903 13 00
 
Std. Transport #
4925225 4921767 4921769 4925224
 
IMO Chemical Code
17
IMO Pollution Category
B
IMO Hazard code
S/P