- Methane trichloride
- Formyl chloride
- Methyl trichloride
Clear, colorless liquid with a characteristic pleasant, sweet, ethereal odor.
Chloroform is now used primarily in the manufacture of hcfc-22, monochlorodifluoromethane, a refrigerant and as a raw material for polytetrafluoroethylene plastics.
Registry Numbers and Inventories.
EC Index Number
Harmful; Irritant; Carcinogenic Category 3
R 22 38 40 48/20/22
Agricultural Chemical and Pesticide; Tumorigen; Drug; Mutagen; Reproductive Effector; Human Data; Primary Irritant
Swiss Giftliste 1
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Melting point, °C
Boiling point, °C
Vapor pressure, mmHg
200 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
210,000 ppm (21%) at 20 C; 257,000 ppm (25.7%) at 25 C (calculated)
7.6 (n-butyl acetate = 1)
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 3.30 mg/L
1.4832 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
0.53 cp (25 C)
1.4476 (20 C)
1.01 D (20 C)
4.8 (20 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
Heat of fusion
Heat of vaporization
Hazards and Protection.
Do not store in direct sunlight. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Keep away from acids. Do not store near alkaline substances. Separate from strong mineral acids.
D1B D2A D2B
Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Use only in a well ventilated area. Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Do not breathe dust, vapor, mist, or gas. Do not ingest or inhale. Store protected from light.
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
A respiratory protection program that meets OSHA's 29 CFR 1910.134 and ANSI Z88.2 requirements or European Standard EN 149 must be followed whenever workplace conditions warrant a respirator's use.
Absorb spill with inert material, (e.g., dry sand or earth), then place into a chemical waste container. Avoid runoff into storm sewers and ditches which lead to waterways. Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Provide ventilation.
Stable at room temperature in closed containers under normal storage and handling conditions. Light sensitive.
Strong oxidizing agents, aluminum, fluorine, magnesium, sodium potassium, lithium, caustics, dinitrogen tetraoxide, sodium + methanol, potassium-tert-butoxide, chemically active metals, Attacks some forms of plastics, rubbers, and coatings., nitrogen tetroxide, acetone + alkali, disilane, perchloric acid + phosphorus pentoxide, sodium methylate, triisopropylphosphine, sodium methoxide + methanol.
Hydrogen chloride, irritating and toxic fumes and gases, carbon dioxide, chlorine, phosgene gas.
Upper exp. limit, %
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Substance is nonflammable. Extinguishing media: Use extinguishing media most appropriate for the surrounding fire. Do NOT get water inside containers. Do NOT use straight streams of water. For small fires, use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or water spray. For large fires, use water spray, fog or regular foam. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out.
Slight when exposed to high heat. Will not support combustion.
Container may explode in the heat of fire. When heated it liberates phosgene, hydrogen chloride, chlorine and toxic and corrosive oxides of carbon and chlorine. Chloroform explodes when in contact with aluminum powder or magnesium powder or with alkali metals (e.g., lithium, sodium, and potassium) and dinitrogen tetroxide. It reacts vigorously with acetone in the presence of potassium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide. It is oxidized by strong oxidizers such as chromic acid forming phosgene and chlorine. It reacts vigorously with triisopropylphosphine. It develops acidity from prolonged exposure to air and light.
Liberates phosgene when heated or involved in fire.
OSHA PEL: C 50 ppm (240 mg/m3) NIOSH REL: Ca ST 2 ppm (9.78 mg/m3) 60-minute See Appendix A NIOSH IDLH: Potential occupational carcinogen 500 ppm
G-A3, I-2B, N-2, CP65
Possible cancer hazard based on tests with laboratory animals. Prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause dermatitis. May cause reproductive and fetal effects. Effects may be delayed. Laboratory experiments have resulted in mutagenic effects. Toxicity may be increased by exposure to alcohol, steroids, and ketones. Prolonged exposure may cause liver, kidney, and heart damage.
Causes severe burning in mouth and throat, pain in the chest and vomiting. Large quantities may cause symptoms similar to inhalation.
Acts as a relatively potent anesthetic. Irritates respiratory tract and causes central nervous system effects, including headache, drowsiness, dizziness. Exposure to higher concentrations may result in unconsciousness and even death. May cause liver injury and blood disorders. Prolonged exposure may lead to death due to irregular heart beat and kidney and liver disorders.
Causes skin irritation resulting in redness and pain. Removes natural oils. May be absorbed through skin.
Vapors causes pain and irritation to eyes. Splashes may cause severe irritation and possible eye damage.
Do NOT induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid immediately.
Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen.
Get medical aid. Flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse.
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid.