Cocaine

  • Benzoylmethylecgonine
  • 3-(Benzoyloxy)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo-(3.2.1)octane-2-carboxylic acid
  • Methyl ether
  • 2-beta-Carbomethoxy-3-beta-Benzoxytropane
  • Cocaina
  • (-)-Cocaine
Formula
C17H21NO4
Structure
Description
Colorless to white crystals or white powder.
Uses
The free base is used for ointments and oily solution because of its solubility in fats, otherwise the hydrochloride or the sulfate is preferred.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
50-36-2
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
200-032-7
RTECS
YM2800000
RTECS class
Drug; Reproductive Effector; Human Data; Primary Irritant
Merck
12,2517
Beilstein/Gmelin
91034
Beilstein Reference
5-22-05-00054

Properties.
Formula
C17H21NO4
Formula mass
303.36
Melting point, °C
98
Boiling point, °C
68 (0.02 torr)
Density
1.216 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
Insoluble
Refractive index
1.5022 (98 C)
pKa/pKb
5.39 (pKb)
Partition coefficient, pKow
2.30

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Cocaine hydrochloride powder and tablets for topicalsolution should be stored in well closed, light resistant containers; topical solutions of the drug should be stored at 15-30C.
Handling
All chemicals should be considered hazardous. Avoid direct physical contact. Use appropriate, approved safety equipment. Untrained individuals should not handle this chemical or its container. Handling should occur in a chemical fume hood.
Protection
Chemical splash goggles in compliance with OSHA regulations are advised; however, OSHA regulations also permit other type safety glasses. Whre chemical resistant gloves. To prevent repeated or prolonged skin contact, wear impervious clothing and boots.
Respirators
Use NIOSH/MSHA approved respirator appropriate for exposure of concern.
Small spills/leaks
Evacuate area and ventilate. Wear protective equipment. If required, use an inert absrobent. Sweep up and place in an appropriate container for disposal. Wash contaminated surfaces.
Stability
No data.
Incompatibilities
Strong oxidizing agents.

Fire.
Fire fighting
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Use agent most appropriate to extinguish fire.

Health.
Exposure effects
mental status changes may include excitement, restlessness, anxiety, delirium, psychosis, and tonic-clonic seizures followed by coma. Cocaine has been rarely associated with cerebral atrophy, aggravation of tourette's syndrome, and the unmasking of latent myasthenia gravis. Cocaine abuse during pregnancy is associated with various congenital anomalies as well as abruptio placentae, low birthweight, and behavioral abnormalities. Neonatal intoxication may also occur.
   Ingestion
Vomiting, bowel ischemia, bowel necrosis, and ulcers have been associated with the use of crack or intravenous cocaine. Ruptured cocaine packets in the GI tract may cause severe local damage.
   Skin
Skin infarction has been observed.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Seek medical attention. If individual is drowsy or unconscious, do not give anything by mouth; place individual on the left side with the head down. Contact a physician, medical facility, or poison control center for advice about whether to induce vomiting. If possible, do not leave individual unattended.
   Inhalation
If symptoms develop, move individual away from exposure and into fresh air. If symptoms persist, seek medical attention. If breathing is difficult, administer oxygen. Keep person warm and quiet; seek immediate medical attention.
   Skin
Supportive care - is the treatment of choice for mild intoxications resulting in sinus tachycardia and mild hypertension. More aggressive treatment may be required in severe cases. Ingested cocaine packets require a different management strategy.
   Eyes
If symptoms develop, immediately move individual away from exposure and into fresh air. Flush eyes gently with water for at least 15 minutes while holding eyelids apart; seek immediate medical attention.

Transport.