Cyanogen bromide

  • Bromine cyanide
  • Bromocyanide
  • Cyanobromide
Formula
CNBr
Structure
Description
Colorless or white needle-like crystals with a penetrating odor, lachrymator.
Uses
In organic synthesis, fumigant, pesticide, in gold-extraction, has been used in cellulose technology.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
506-68-3
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
208-051-2
EC Class
very toxic, corrosive, dangerous for the environment
R 26/27/28 34 50
S 9 15 26 28.1 36/37/39 45 61
RTECS
GT2100000
RTECS class
Human Data
UN (DOT)
1889
Merck
12,2763
Beilstein/Gmelin
1697296
Beilstein Reference
4-03-00-00092
RCRA
U246
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-1296
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
CBrN
Formula mass
105.93
Boiling point, °C
61.4
Vapor pressure, mmHg
185 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
3.62
Saturation Concentration
12.1% at 20 C (calc.)
Density
2.06 g/cm3
Solubility in water
Slowly reacts
Surface tension
27.26 g/s2 (55 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
0.85
Heat of vaporization
33.82 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Keep away from water. Keep away from acids. Keep containers tightly closed.
D1A E
Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Use only in a well ventilated area. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Do not ingest or inhale. Discard contaminated shoes.
Protection
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators
Follow the OSHA respirator regulations found in 29CFR 1910.134 or European Standard EN 149. Always use a NIOSH or European Standard EN 149 approved respirator when necessary.
Small spills/leaks
Vacuum or sweep up material and place into a suitable disposal container. Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Sweep up or absorb material, then place into a suitable clean, dry, closed container for disposal. Avoid generating dusty conditions. Do not get water inside containers. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. Use water spray to reduce vapors or divert vapor cloud drift.
Disposal code
6
Stability
Polymerization at low temperatures may occur. Reacts with water to form toxic fumes. Unstable. May reactwith carbon dioxide in the air to form toxic hydrogen cyanide.
Incompatibilities
Strong oxidizing agents, nitrites, nitrates, acids, and moist air or water. Can polymerize violently upon prolonged storage.
Decomposition
Hydrogen cyanide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen bromide, nitrogen.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
-9
Fire fighting
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Water Reactive. Material will react with water and may release a flammable and/or toxic gas. Reaction with water may generate much heat which will increase the concentration of fumes in the air. Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated or if contaminated with water. Extinguishing media: Use water spray to cool fire-exposed containers. Substance is noncombustible; use agent most appropriate to extinguish surrounding fire. DO NOT USE WATER! Do NOT get water inside containers. Do NOT use straight streams of water. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out.
Fire potential
Noncombustible
Hazards
Cyanogen bromide is not combustible itself, but impure cyanogen bromide decomposes rapidly and tends to explode. A violent reaction may take place on contact with large quantities of acid. Vapors are highly irritating. When material is heated to decomposition, it emits very toxic fumes of cyanide and bromide. Avoid water, acids. Avoid physical damage, contact with acids or water, and store away from a location where water may be needed for fire control.
Combustion products
It emits very toxic fumes of srp: Hydrogen cyanide..
Health
4
 
Flammability
0
 
 
Reactivity
1
 

Health.
Poison_Class
1
Exposure effects
Initial presentation of cyanide poisoning may include hyperpnea and rapid breathing. Hypoventilation progressing to apnea may be seen in the later phases and is a major cause of death. Rapid heart rate and elevated blood pressure may be seen. Low heart rate and abnormally low blood pressure are seen in the late phases of cyanide poisoning. Headache, CNS stimulation with anxiety, agitation, and combative behavior, coma, and seizures may be seen. Most victims of acute poisoning either die acutely or fully recover.
   Ingestion
May be fatal if swallowed. May cause severe gastrointestinal tract irritation with nausea, vomiting and possible burns. May cause central nervous system effects. Metabolism may release cyanide, which may result in headache, dizziness, weakness, collapse, unconsciousness and possible death. Ingestion may result in symptoms similar to cyanide poisoning which is characterized by aspyhxiation. Large doses of cyanide may result in suddden loss of consciousness and prompt death; small doses will prolong the above symptoms 1 to 2 hours. Ingestion may cause convulsions, paralysis, and sweating.
   Inhalation
May cause irritation of the respiratory tract with burning pain in the nose and throat, coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath and pulmonary edema. May cause effects similar to those described for ingestion. Inhalation may be fatal as a result of spasm, inflammation, edema of the larynx and bronchi, chemical pneumonitis and pulmonary edema. Inhalation may produce lachrimation, sneezing, rhinnorhea, cough, dyspnea, bronchial asthma, and cyanosis. Exposure may cause coughing, breathing difficulty, and possible pulmonary edema. High concentrations may cause pulmonary edema and lung hemmorrages. Low concentrations may cause may cause lacrimation as well as acute and delayed respiratory effects. May be metabolized to cyanide which in turns act by inhibiting cytochrome oxidase impairing cellular respiration. Inhalation may result in symptoms similar to cyanide poisoning which includes unconsciousness and death.
   Skin
May cause severe skin irritation. If absorbed, may cause symptoms similar to those for ingestion. May be metabolized to cyanide which in turn acts by inhibiting cytochrome oxidase impairing cellular respiration.
   Eyes
Contact with eyes may cause severe irritation, and possible eye burns. Lachrymator.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Do NOT induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid immediately. SPEED IS ESSENTIAL. A DOCTOR MUST BE NOTIFIED AT ONCE. Treat patient as for inhalation.
   Inhalation
Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. DO NOT use mouth-to-mouth respiration. If breathing has ceased apply artificial respiration using oxygen and a suitable mechanical device such as a bag and a mask. SPEED IS ESSENTIAL, OBTAIN MEDICAL AID IMMEDIATELY.
   Skin
Get medical aid immediately. Immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Treat patient as for inhalation.
   Eyes
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid immediately.

Transport.
UN number
1889
Response guide
Hazard class
6.1
Packing Group
I
 
USCG CHRIS Code
CBR
 
HS Code
2851 00 80
 
Std. Transport #
4921041