Cyanogen

  • Ethanedinitrile
  • Carbon nitride
  • Oxalonitrile
Formula
C2N2
Structure
Description
A colorless gas with an odor of almonds.
Uses
Organic synthesis, welding and cutting metals, fumigant, rocket propellant.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
460-19-5
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
207-306-5
EC Index Number
608-011-00-8
EC Class
Highly flammable; Toxic; Dangerous for the Environment
RTECS
GT1925000
RTECS class
Human Data; Primary Irritant
UN (DOT)
1026
Merck
12,2761
Beilstein/Gmelin
1732464
Beilstein Reference
4-02-00-01863
RCRA
P031
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-1447
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
New Zealand
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C2N2
Formula mass
52.04
Boiling point, °C
-21.17
Vapor pressure, mmHg
4310 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
1.8
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 500 mg/m3
Critical temperature
127
Critical pressure
58.2
Density
1.804 g/cm3 (20 C) (liquid)
Solubility in water
Very soluble
Viscosity
0.0098 cp (15 C)
Surface tension
22.82 g/s2 (-25 C)
Refractive index
1.00075 (20 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
0.07
Heat of fusion
8.1 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization
23.3 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion
-1099 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Protect containers against physical damage. Prevent shock. Keep cylinders away from any source of heat. Isolate from acids, acid fumes, or water. Store at in cool, well-ventilated area of noncombustible construction away from any source of ignition.
Handling
All chemicals should be considered hazardous. Avoid direct physical contact. Use appropriate, approved safety equipment. Untrained individuals should not handle this chemical or its container. Handling should occur in a chemical fume hood.
Protection
Wear appropriate protective gloves, clothing and goggles -- as recommended by the manufacturer. Always wear thermal protective clothing when handling refrigerated/cryogenic liquids.
Respirators
Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA).
Small spills/leaks
Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard. Use water spray to knock-down vapors.
Stability
Reactive under confinement, extreme caution.
Incompatibilities
It
Decomposition
When heated to decomposition. It will produce highly toxic fumes. Toxic gases and vapors (such as hydrogen cyanide and carbon monoxide) may be released when cyanide decomposes.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
-91
Upper exp. limit, %
32
Lower exp. limit, %
6
Fire fighting
Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Solid streams of water may be ineffective. Use alcohol foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide.
Fire potential
Very flammable-combustion imminent.
Hazards
Vapors are heavier than air and may travel to a source of ignition and flash back. Closed containers may rupture violently when heated.
Combustion products
Unburned vapors are highly toxic.
Health
4
 
Flammability
4
 
 
Reactivity
1
 

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
NIOSH REL: TWA 10 ppm (20 mg/m3)
Poison_Class
1
Exposure effects
Initially, headache, vertigo, and agitation occur, followed by combative behavior, coma, seizures, and death.
   Inhalation
Tachypnea, hyperpnea, and dyspnea followed rapidly by respiratory depression are common. Pulmonary edema may occur.
   Skin
Papules, rashes, pruritus, and ulcerations may occur.
   Eyes
Burning sensation of mouth and throat, and equally red retinal arteries and veins are common.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Emergency measures - in symptomatic patients advance life support including use of the cyanide antidote kit should be initiated as gastrointestinal decontamination is being prepared. Ipecac induced vomiting is not recommended because of the potential for cns depression and seizures. Activated charcoal: administer charcoal as a slurry (240 ml water/30 g charcoal). Usual dose: 25 to 100 g in adults/adolescents. Consider after ingestion of a potentially life-threatening amount of poison if it can be performed soon after ingestion (generally within 1 hour). Oxygen - immediately begin therapy with 100% oxygen.
   Inhalation
Move patient to fresh air. Monitor for respiratory distress. If cough or difficulty breathing develops, evaluate for respiratory tract irritation, bronchitis, or pneumonitis. Administer oxygen and assist ventilation as required. Treat bronchospasm with beta2 agonist and corticosteroid aerosols.
   Skin
Remove contaminated clothing and wash exposed area thoroughly with soap and water. A physician should examine the area if irritation or pain persists. While cyanide can be absorbed through intact skin, most reported cases have involved whole-body immersion in cyanide solutions or large-area burns with molten cyanide solutions.
   Eyes
Immediately flush with running water for at least 20 minutes.

Transport.
UN number
1026
Response guide
Hazard class
2.3
PRTC
T
USCG CHRIS Code
CYG
 
Std. Transport #
4920395