Commonly used for cracking aromatics. Commercially, used to produce a variety of analgesics, sedatives, hypnotics, antitumor agents, cns depressants, prostaglandins, insecticides, and many other products.
Registry Numbers and Inventories.
EC Index Number
Highly flammable; Dangerous for the Environment
R 11 52/53
S 9 16 29 33 61
Swiss Giftliste 1
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Melting point, °C
Boiling point, °C
Vapor pressure, mmHg
318 (20 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
53% (530000 ppm) at 31 C (calculated)
0.746 G/CM3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
0.44 cp @ 20C
1.4068 (20 C)
1.9 (20 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
Heat of fusion
Heat of vaporization
Heat of combustion
Hazards and Protection.
Keep away from sources of ignition. Store in a tightly closed container. Flammables-area.
Wash thoroughly after handling. Use only in a well ventilated area. Ground and bond containers when transferring material. Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Empty containers retain product residue, (liquid and/or vapor), and can be dangerous. Avoid contact with heat, sparks and flame. Avoid ingestion and inhalation. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose empty containers to heat, sparks or open flames.
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Follow the OSHA respirator regulations found in 29CFR 1910.134 or European Standard EN 149. Always use a NIOSH or European Standard EN 149 approved respirator when necessary.
Absorb spill with inert material, (e.g., dry sand or earth), then place into a chemical waste container. Remove all sources of ignition.
Stable under normal temperatures and pressures.
Strong oxidizing agents
Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide.
Upper exp. limit, %
Lower exp. limit, %
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. Extremely flammable. Material will readily ignite at room temperature. Extinguishing media: Use water spray to cool fire-exposed containers. Use foam, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide.
Flammable, dangerous fire risk.
Containers may explode.
Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases.
TLV: 600 ppm; 1720 mg/m3 (as TWA) (ACGIH 1993-1994). NIOSH REL: TWA 600 ppm (1720 mg/m3)
CNS depression and dizziness may be expected after exposure to moderate to high concentrations of the vapor.
May cause irritation of the digestive tract. May cause central nervous system depression.
Inhalation of high concentrations may cause central nervous system effects characterized by headache, dizziness, unconsciousness and coma. May cause respiratory tract irritation. May cause drowsiness, unconsciousness, and central nervous system depression.
May cause skin irritation.
May cause eye irritation.
Do NOT induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Possible aspiration hazard. Get medical aid.
Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical aid.
Get medical aid if irritation develops or persists. Flush skin with plenty of soap and water.
Flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid.