D-Limonene

  • Carvene
  • (+)-Limonene
  • (R)-4-isopropenyl-1-methylcyclohexene
  • (R)-p-Mentha-1,8-diene
Formula
C10H16
Structure
Description
Colorless liquid, lemon-like odor.
Uses
Solvent, manufacture resins.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
5989-27-5
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
227-813-5
EC Index Number
601-029-00-7
EC Class
Flammable; Irritant; Sensitising; Dangerous for the Environment
R 10 38 43 50/53
S 24 37 60 61
RTECS
GW6360000
RTECS class
Tumorigen; Drug; Reproductive Effector
UN (DOT)
2319
Merck
13,5515
Beilstein/Gmelin
2204754
Beilstein Reference
4-05-00-00438
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-2357
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C10H16
Formula mass
136.24
Melting point, °C
-74
Boiling point, °C
175.5
Vapor pressure, mmHg
1.5 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
4.7
Saturation Concentration
Less than 4000 ppm at 14 C (calculated)
Density
0.8411 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
Insoluble
Surface tension
28.53 g/s2 (11 C)
Refractive index
1.4730 (20 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
4.232
Heat of fusion
11.4 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization
39.5 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion
-6167 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep away from heat, sparks, and flame. Keep away from sources of ignition. Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances.
B3 D2B
Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Use with adequate ventilation. Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Empty containers retain product residue, (liquid and/or vapor), and can be dangerous. Avoid contact with heat, sparks and flame. Avoid ingestion and inhalation. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose empty containers to heat, sparks or open flames.
Protection
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators
Follow the OSHA respirator regulations found in 29CFR 1910.134 or European Standard EN 149. Always use a NIOSH or European Standard EN 149 approved respirator when necessary.
Small spills/leaks
Absorb spill with inert material, (e.g., dry sand or earth), then place into a chemical waste container. Provide ventilation.
Disposal code
1
Stability
Stable under normal temperatures and pressures.
Incompatibilities
Limonene is incompatible with iodine pentafluoride + tetrafluoroethylene, and oxidizing agents
Decomposition
Carbon monoxide, irritating and toxic fumes and gases, oxides of carbon.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
43
Autoignition, °C
255
Upper exp. limit, %
6.1
Lower exp. limit, %
0.7
Fire fighting
Fires involving this material can be controlled with a dry chemical carbon dioxide or Halon extinguisher.
Fire potential
This chemical is combustible.
Hazards
Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers.
Combustion products
Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases.
Health
2
 
Flammability
2
 
 
Reactivity
0
 

Health.
Poison_Class
4
Exposure effects
The toxological properties of this substance have not been fully investigated.
   Ingestion
Aspiration hazard. May cause gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. May cause central nervous system depression, characterized by excitement, followed by headache, dizziness, drowsiness, and nausea. Advanced stages may cause collapse, unconsciousness, coma and possible death due to respiratory failure. Aspiration of material into the lungs may cause chemical pneumonitis, which may be fatal.
   Inhalation
Inhalation of high concentrations may cause central nervous system effects characterized by headache, dizziness, unconsciousness and coma. May cause respiratory tract irritation.
   Skin
Causes skin irritation. May cause skin sensitization, an allergic reaction, which becomes evident upon re-exposure to this material.
   Eyes
Causes eye irritation.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Do NOT induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid.
   Inhalation
Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical aid.
   Skin
Get medical aid. Flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes.
   Eyes
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid.

Transport.
UN number
2319
Response guide
Hazard class
3
Packing Group
III
 
HS Code
2902 19 10