Diazepam

  • Alboral
  • Aliseum
  • Amiprol
  • Ansiolin
  • Ansiolisina
  • Apaurin
Formula
C16H13ClN2O
Structure
Description
Off-white to yellow crystalline powder. Practically odorless. Tasteless at first with a bitter aftertaste.
Uses
Medication.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
439-14-5
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
207-122-5
RTECS
DF1575000
RTECS class
Tumorigen; Drug; Mutagen; Reproductive Effector; Human Data
Merck
12,3042
Beilstein/Gmelin
754371
Beilstein Reference
5-24-04-00300
EPA OPP
600069
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C16H13ClN2O
Formula mass
284.74
Melting point, °C
220 - 222
Boiling point, °C
497
Density
1.73 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
3 g/L (25 C)
Refractive index
1.609 (20 C)
pKa/pKb
10.60 (pKb)
Partition coefficient, pKow
2.99
Heat of fusion
27.3 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization
75.5 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep in a cool, dry, dark location in a tightly sealed container or cylinder. Keep away from incompatible materials, ignition sources and untrained individuals. Secure and label area. Protect containers/cylinders from physical damage.
Handling
All chemicals should be considered hazardous. Avoid direct physical contact. Use appropriate, approved safety equipment. Untrained individuals should not handle this chemical or its container. Handling should occur in a chemical fume hood.
Protection
Chemical splash goggles in compliance with OSHA regulations are advised; however, OSHA regulations also permit other type safety glasses. Whre chemical resistant gloves. To prevent repeated or prolonged skin contact, wear impervious clothing and boots.
Respirators
Wear a NIOSH-approved half face respirator equipped with an organic vapor/acid gas cartridge (specific for organic vapors, HCl, acid gas and SO2) with a dust/mist filter.
Small spills/leaks
Should a spill occur while you are handling this chemical, FIRST REMOVE ALL SOURCES OF IGNITION, then you should dampen the solid spill material with 60-70% ethanol and transfer the dampened material to a suitable container. Use absorbent paper dampened with 60-70% ethanol to pick up any remaining material. Seal the absorbent paper, and any of your clothes, which may be contaminated, in a vapor-tight plastic bag for eventual disposal. Solvent wash all contaminated surfaces with 60-70% ethanol followed by washing with a soap and water solution. Do not reenter the contaminated area until the Safety Officer (or other responsible person) has verified that the area has been properly cleaned.
Stability
Stable in air the drug is most stable at pH 4 to 8.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
255
Fire fighting
Fires involving this material can be controlled with a dry chemical, carbon dioxide or Halon extinguisher.
Fire potential
This material is probably combustible.

Health.
Exposure effects
Reduced body temperature, respiratory depression, abnormally low blood pressure and low heart rate have been reported in overdose. ataxia, lethargy, sleepiness and slurred speech are common. Coma has been reported. Benzodiazepines may induce or worsen dyskinesia. Patients may be agitated (paradoxical effect) or disorientated, and may experience memory loss, confusion, and difficulty concentrating. Benzodiazepines are excreted in breast milk and may produce effects in the nursing infant. <br>Administration of benzodiazepines prior to delivery may produce signs of poisoning in the neonate. A condition called floppy infant syndrome, characterized by hypotonia that may last several days, may may occur following maternal diazepam use.
   Ingestion
Nausea and vomiting have been reported.
   Inhalation
Symptoms of exposure to this compound may include drowsiness, ataxia, skin rash, dysarthria, nausea, diplopia, anxiety, depression, constipation, changes in salivation, blurred vision, urinary retention, incontinence, tremor, headache, confusion, slurred speech, vertigo, changes in libido and jaundice. Other symptoms of exposure include fatigue, dizziness, respiratory depression, nystagmus, incoordination of the upper extremities, cardiac arrest, hyporeflexia, muscular weakness, agitation, insomnia, grand mal seizures, organic brain syndrome, paradoxical excitement, delirium, coma, hallucinations, vomiting, lethargy and respiratory failure or arrest.
   Skin
Bullae have been reported.
   Eyes
For pure benzodiazepine ingestions, effects should be minimal, but may include prolonged dialation of the pupils, nystagmus, and divergence paralysis. Constriction of the pupil is also observed.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. If the victim is conscious and not convulsing, give 1 or 2 glasses of water to dilute the chemical and IMMEDIATELY call a hospital or poison control center. Be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital if advised by a physician.
   Inhalation
IMMEDIATELY leave the contaminated area; take deep breaths of fresh air. If symptoms (such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, or burning in the mouth, throat, or chest) develop, call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital. Provide proper respiratory protection to rescuers entering an unknown atmosphere. Whenever possible, Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) should be used.
   Skin
IMMEDIATELY flood affected skin with water while removing and isolating all contaminated clothing. Gently wash all affected skin areas thoroughly with soap and water. If symptoms such as redness or irritation develop, IMMEDIATELY call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital for treatment.
   Eyes
First check the victim for contact lenses and remove if present. Flush victim's eyes with water or normal saline solution for 20 to 30 minutes while simultaneously calling a hospital or poison control center. Do not put any ointments, oils, or medication in the victim's eyes without specific instructions from a physician. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim after flushing eyes to a hospital even if no symptoms (such as redness or irritation) develop.

Transport.