Colorless crystals or water-white viscous, oily liquid, depending on ambient temperature, mild ammonia-like odor, deliquescent.
Production of lubricants for the textile industry, as rubber chemicals intermediate, humectant and softening agent, in organic synth, it is used as emulsifier & dispersing agent in various agricultural chemicals, cosmetics, & pharmaceuticals.
Registry Numbers and Inventories.
EC Index Number
R 22 38 41 48/22
S 26 36/37/39 46
Tumorigen; Drug; Reproductive Effector; Primary Irritant
Swiss Giftliste 1
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Melting point, °C
Boiling point, °C
Vapor pressure, mmHg
0.001 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
<13 ppm at 20 C (calculated)
<0.01 (butyl acetate = 1)
Solubility in water
8.67 g/(cm s) (20 C)
48.71 g/s2 (30 C)
1.4753 (20 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
Heat of vaporization
Heat of combustion
Hazards and Protection.
Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances.
Wash thoroughly after handling. Wash hands before eating. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Use with adequate ventilation. Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Avoid ingestion and inhalation.
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
a half-face respirator with an organic vapor cartridge and particulate filter (NIOSH type N95 or better filter) may be worn for up to ten times the exposure limit or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. A full-face piece respirator with an organic vapor cartridge and particulate filter (NIOSH N 100 filter) may be worn up to 50 times the exposure limit, or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. If oil particles (e.g. lubricants, cutting fluids, glycerine, etc.) are present, use a NIOSH type R or P particulate filter. For emergencies or instances where the exposure levels are not known, use a full-face piece positive-pressure, air-supplied respirator.
Absorb spill with inert material, (e.g., dry sand or earth), then place into a chemical waste container. Avoid runoff into storm sewers and ditches which lead to waterways. Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Remove all sources of ignition. Provide ventilation.
Stable under normal temperatures and pressures. Hygroscopic. Darkens upon heating above 60 C.
Carbon dioxide, copper, copper alloys, galvanized iron, halogenated organic solvents, acids, and oxidizing agents. Concentrated solutions or higher temperatures can introduce reactivity hazards. N-nitrosamines, many of which are known to be potent carcinogens, may be formed when this product comes in contact with nitrous acid, nitrates or atmospheres with high nitrous oxide concentrations.
Nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, irritating and toxic fumes and gases, carbon dioxide.
Upper exp. limit, %
Lower exp. limit, %
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. Containers may explode when heated. Extinguishing media: Use carbon dioxide or dry chemical. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out.
Slightly flammable. Combustion requires preheating .
Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas.
Irritating vapors are generated when heated.
TLV: 0.46 ppm; 2 mg/m3 (skin) (ACGIH 1995-1996). NIOSH REL: TWA 3 ppm (15 mg/m3)
Prolonged or repeated skin exposure may cause dermatitis. May cause reproductive and fetal effects.
Single dose oral toxicity is low. Swallowing large amounts may cause severe mucosal irritation, erythema, blisters, or lesions of the mouth, esophagus, or gastro-intestinal tract. May also cause abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Estimated lethal dose 20 grams in humans. Many solvents and petroleum-based products with chemical structures similar to this product cause central nervous system depression. It is not known if diethanolamine causes such effects.
Low vapor pressure makes it a low inhalation hazard unless heated or misted. Vapor or mist cause irritation to the respiratory tract; symptoms include sore throat, sneezing and coughing. May also cause an allergic reaction.
May cause irritation and redness. Solutions or contact with wet clothing may cause burns. A single prolonged exposure is not likely to result in the material being absorbed through the skin in harmful amounts. May also cause an allergic reaction. May be absorbed through skin.
Vapor may cause irritation, tears, redness, and pain. Contact may cause severe irritation and corneal damage. May cause burns.
Do NOT induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Get medical aid.
Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen.
Immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Get medical aid if irritation develops or persists. Wash clothing before reuse.
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid immediately.