Epichlorohydrin

  • Chloromethyloxirane
  • 1-Chloro-2,3-epoxypropane
  • Chloropropylene oxide
Formula
C3H5ClO
Structure
Description
Colorless liquid, irritating, chloroform-like odor.
Uses
Insect fumigant.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
106-89-8
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
203-439-8
EC Index Number
603-026-00-6
EC Class
Flammable; Carcinogenic Category 2; Toxic; Corrosive; Sensitising
R 45 10 23/24/25 34 43
RTECS
TX4900000
RTECS class
Agricultural Chemical and Pesticide; Tumorigen; Mutagen; Reproductive Effector; Human Data; Primary Irritant
UN (DOT)
2023
Merck
13,3642
Beilstein/Gmelin
79785
Beilstein Reference
5-17-01-00020
RCRA
U041
EPA OPP
600503
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-1614
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C3H5ClO
Formula mass
92.53
Melting point, °C
-57.2
Boiling point, °C
117.9
Vapor pressure, mmHg
22 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
3.29
Saturation Concentration
17000 ppm (1.7%) at 20 C (calculated)
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 10 ppm.
Critical temperature
309
Critical pressure
48.8
Density
0.9985 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
60 g/L (20 C)
Viscosity
91.16 cp (29 C)
Surface tension
37.0 g/s2
Refractive index
1.4399 (11.6 C)
Dipole moment
1.86 D
Dielectric constant
22.6 (22 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
0.45
Heat of vaporization
34.0 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion
-1572 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep away from heat, sparks, and flame. Keep away from sources of ignition. Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Flammables-area. Outside or detached storage is preferred.
B2 D1A D2A
Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Wash hands before eating. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Use only in a well ventilated area. Ground and bond containers when transferring material. Use spark-proof tools and explosion proof equipment. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Empty containers retain product residue, (liquid and/or vapor), and can be dangerous. Do not ingest or inhale. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose empty containers to heat, sparks or open flames.
Protection
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators
Wear a NIOSH/MSHA or European Standard EN 149 approved full-facepiece airline respirator in the positive pressure mode with emergency escape provisions.
Small spills/leaks
Absorb spill with inert material, (e.g., dry sand or earth), then place into a chemical waste container. Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Remove all sources of ignition. Provide ventilation. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. Prevent spreading of vapors through sewers, ventilation systems and confined areas.
Disposal code
9
Stability
Stable under normal temperatures and pressures. Hazardous exothermic polymerization can occur in the presence of strong acids, caustic alkalies, aluminum, aluminum chloride, iron (III) chloride, zinc, and curing agents such as ethylenediamine.
Incompatibilities
Can react violently with compounds carrying an active hydrogen atom, including water. This material is incompatible with strong oxidizers, strong acids, caustric, mercaptans, zinc, aluminum, and chlorides of iron. Epichlorohydrin ignites on contact with potassium tert-butoxide. Reaction with trichloroethylene forms the explosive dichloroacetylene. A violent reaction occurs with isopropylamine or aniline.
Decomposition
Hydrogen chloride, chlorine, phosgene, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
28
Autoignition, °C
416
Upper exp. limit, %
21.0
Lower exp. limit, %
3.8
Fire fighting
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Vapors may be heavier than air. They can spread along the ground and collect in low or confined areas. May polymerize explosively when involved in a fire. May be ignited by heat, sparks, and flame. Containers may explode if exposed to fire. Extinguishing media: For small fires, use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, water spray or alcohol-resistant foam. Use water spray to cool fire-exposed containers. Do NOT use straight streams of water. For large fires, use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, alcohol-resistant foam, or water spray. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water.
Fire potential
Flammable liquid and vapor.
Hazards
When heated to decomposition, this compound evolves highly toxic fumes of phosgene and carbon monoxide. Reactive and incompatible with strong oxidizers, strong acids, caustics, zinc, aluminum, chlorides of iron and aluminumand compounds with an active hydrogen atom, including water. Unstable, avoid heat, contaminants, strong acids and bases, certain curing agents such as ethylenediamine. Hazardous polymerization may occur.
Combustion products
Combustion may produce irritants and toxic gases.
Health
3
 
Flammability
3
 
 
Reactivity
2
 

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
TLV: 2 ppm; 7.6 mg/m3 (skin) (ACGIH 1992-1993). PDK: 1 mg/m3 (USSR 1986). OSHA PEL: TWA 5 ppm (19 mg/m3) skin NIOSH REL: Ca See Appendix A NIOSH IDLH: Potential occupational carcinogen 75 ppm
Carcinogin
G-A3, I-2A, N-2, CP65
Poison_Class
1*
Exposure effects
Prolonged or repeated exposure may cause lung damage, kidney damage, liver damage, blood effects, skin sensitization and respiratory tract sensitization. A suspect human carcinogen. Reports have shown that exposure to epichlorohydrin by oral, inhalation, and subcutaneous routes impaired male fertility and/or spermatogenesis. Animal studies, at experimentally high levels, show that epichlorohydrin may have fetotoxic effects. Separate studies indicate that this material is also a mutagen.
   Ingestion
Corrosive. Swallowing can cause severe burns of the mouth, throat, and stomach, leading to death. Can cause sore throat, vomiting, diarrhea. May affect central nervous system.
   Inhalation
Inhalation can cause severe irritation of mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract. Symptoms may include burning sensation, coughing, wheezing, laryngitis, shortness of breath, headache, nausea and vomiting. High concentrations may cause lung damage. May cause allergic reaction in sensitive individuals. Inhalation of higher concentrations may affect central nervous system and be fatal.
   Skin
Corrosive. Symptoms of redness, pain, and severe burn can occur. Effects may be delayed. May be absorbed through the skin with possible systemic effects.
   Eyes
Corrosive! Vapors are severely irritating and may cause damage to the eyes. Contact may cause severe burns and permanent eye damage. Effects may be delayed.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid immediately.
   Inhalation
Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen.
   Skin
Get medical aid immediately. Immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Discard contaminated clothing in a manner which limits further exposure.
   Eyes
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid immediately.

Transport.
UN number
2023
Response guide
Hazard class
6.1
Packing Group
II
 
USCG CHRIS Code
EPC
 
17 Epichlorohydrin
HS Code
2910 30 00
 
Std. Transport #
4921005
 
IMO Pollution Category
A
IMO Hazard code
S/P