Ethyl alcohol

  • Ethanol
  • Alcohol
  • Grain alcohol
  • Cologne spirits
  • Denatured alcohol
  • Fermentation alcohol
Formula
C2H5OH
Structure
Description
Colorless, clear, volatile liquid with a sweet, ethereal odor like wine or whiskey. Denatured ethanol may have an unpleasant odor. Hygroscopic.
Uses
In alcoholic beverages, manufacturing of denatured alcohols, pharmaceuticals, in perfumery, in organic synthesis, octane booster in gasoline, solvent and dehydrating agent.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
64-17-5
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
200-578-6
EC Index Number
603-002-00-5
EC Class
Highly flammable
RTECS
KQ6300000
RTECS class
Tumorigen; Mutagen; Reproductive Effector; Human Data; Primary Irritant
UN (DOT)
1170
Merck
12,3806
Beilstein/Gmelin
1718733
Beilstein Reference
4-01-00-01289
EPA OPP
1501
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-1158
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C2H6O
Formula mass
46.07
Melting point, °C
-117
Boiling point, °C
78.3
Vapor pressure, mmHg
60 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
1.59
Saturation Concentration
5.8% at 20 C
Evaporization number
3.3 (butyl acetate = 1)
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 10 ppm
Critical temperature
243
Critical pressure
63
Density
0.7895 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
Miscible
Viscosity
1.200 cp at 20C
Surface tension
22.75 g/s2 in contact with vapor @ 20 C
Refractive index
1.3629 (20 C)
Dipole moment
1.7 D (20 C)
Dielectric constant
24.3 (25 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
-0.31
Thermal expansion
0.0011/K
Heat of fusion
4.6 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization
42.6 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion
-1368 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep away from heat, sparks, and flame. Keep away from sources of ignition. Store in a tightly closed container. Keep from contact with oxidizing materials. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Flammables-area. Do not store near perchlorates, peroxides, chromic acid or nitric acid.
B2 D2A D2B
Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Use only in a well ventilated area. Ground and bond containers when transferring material. Use spark-proof tools and explosion proof equipment. Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Empty containers retain product residue, (liquid and/or vapor), and can be dangerous. Keep container tightly closed. Avoid contact with heat, sparks and flame. Avoid ingestion and inhalation. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose empty containers to heat, sparks or open flames.
Protection
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators
A respiratory protection program that meets OSHA's 29 CFR 1910.134 and ANSI Z88.2 requirements or European Standard EN 149 must be followed whenever workplace conditions warrant a respirator's use.
Small spills/leaks
Absorb spill with inert material, (e.g., dry sand or earth), then place into a chemical waste container. Remove all sources of ignition. Use a spark-proof tool. Provide ventilation. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors.
Stability
Stable under normal temperatures and pressures.
Incompatibilities
Strong oxidizing agents, acids, alkali metals, ammonia, hydrazine, peroxides, sodium, acid anhydrides, calcium hypochlorite, chromyl chloride, nitrosyl perchlorate, bromine pentafluoride, perchloric acid, silver nitrate, mercuric nitrate, potassium-tert-butoxide, magnesium perchlorate, acid chlorides, platinum, uranium hexafluoride, silver oxide, iodine heptafluoride, acetyl bromide, disulfuryl difluoride, tetrachlorosilane + water, acetyl chloride, permanganic acid, ruthenium (VIII) oxide, uranyl perchlorate, potassium dioxide.
Decomposition
Carbon monoxide, irritating and toxic fumes and gases, carbon dioxide.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
17
Autoignition, °C
363
Upper exp. limit, %
19.0
Lower exp. limit, %
3.3
Fire fighting
Wear full protective clothing and NIOSH-approved self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in the pressure demand or other positive pressure mode. Water spray can be used to cool fire-exposed containers. Water may be used to flush spills away from exposures and to dilute spills to non-flammable mixtures. Water spray, dry chemical, alcohol foam, or carbon dioxide can be used to extinguish fire.
Fire potential
Flammable liquid and vapor. Dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat or flame.
Hazards
Flashback along vapor trail may occur. Vapor may explode if ignited in an enclosed area.
Combustion products
Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases.
Health
2
 
Flammability
3
 
 
Reactivity
0
 

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
OSHA PEL: TWA 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3) NIOSH REL: TWA 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3) NIOSH IDLH: 3300 ppm LEL
Poison_Class
-
Exposure effects
May cause reproductive and fetal effects. Laboratory experiments have resulted in mutagenic effects. Animal studies have reported the development of tumors. Prolonged exposure may cause liver, kidney, and heart damage.
   Ingestion
May cause gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. May cause systemic toxicity with acidosis. May cause central nervous system depression, characterized by excitement, followed by headache, dizziness, drowsiness, and nausea. Advanced stages may cause collapse, unconsciousness, coma and possible death due to respiratory failure.
   Inhalation
Inhalation of high concentrations may cause central nervous system effects characterized by headache, dizziness, unconsciousness and coma. Causes respiratory tract irritation. May cause narcotic effects in high concentration. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation.
   Skin
Causes skin irritation, cracking or flaking due to dehydration and defatting action.
   Eyes
Can cause eye irritation. Splashes may cause temporary pain and blurred vision.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Do NOT induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid.
   Inhalation
Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical aid. DO NOT use mouth-to-mouth respiration.
   Skin
Get medical aid. Wash clothing before reuse. Flush skin with plenty of soap and water.
   Eyes
Get medical aid. Gently lift eyelids and flush continuously with water.

Transport.
UN number
1170
Response guide
Hazard class
3
Packing Group
II; III
 
USCG CHRIS Code
EAL
 
20 Alcohols, Glycols
HS Code
2207 10 00
 
Std. Transport #
4910179
 
IMO Chemical Code
18
IMO Pollution Category
III