Ethyl ether

  • 1,1’-Oxybisethane
  • Ethyl oxide
  • Diethyl ether
  • Ethoxyethane
  • Ether
Formula
(C2H5)2O
Structure
Description
Clear colorless liquid, characteristic sweet pungent odor.
Uses
Solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, gums, nitrocellulose when mixed with alcohol, manufacture of gun powder, as primer for gasoline engines, reagent for organic syntheses, extractant of active principles (hormones, etc) from plant & animal tissues.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
60-29-7
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
200-467-2
EC Index Number
603-022-00-4
EC Class
Extremely flammable; May form explosive peroxides; Harmful; Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking; Vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness
R 12 19 22 66 67
S 9 16 29 33
RTECS
KI5775000
RTECS class
Tumorigen; Drug; Mutagen; Human Data; Primary Irritant
UN (DOT)
1155
Merck
12,3852
Beilstein/Gmelin
1696894
Beilstein Reference
4-01-00-01314
RCRA
U117
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-1155
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C4H10O
Formula mass
74.12
Melting point, °C
-123
Boiling point, °C
35
Vapor pressure, mmHg
440 (20 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
2.6
Saturation Concentration
58% at 20 C
Evaporization number
37.5 (butyl acetate=1)
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 0.83 ppm
Critical temperature
192.7
Critical pressure
35.6
Density
0.7135 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
84 g/L (20 C)
Viscosity
0.2448 cp @ 20C
Surface tension
17.06 g/s2 at 20 C
Refractive index
1.35555 (20 C)
Dipole moment
1.25 D (20 C)
Dielectric constant
4.3 (20 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
0.89
Thermal expansion
0.00215/K
Heat of fusion
7.3 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization
27.8 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion
-2729 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep away from heat, sparks, and flame. Do not store near combustible materials. Do not store in direct sunlight. Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Flammables-area. Refrigerator (approx 4 C). Do not expose to air. Store protected from moisture. Store protected from light. Store under an inert atmosphere. Keep away from oxidizing agents.
B2
Handling
Use only in a well ventilated area. Ground and bond containers when transferring material. Do not breathe dust, vapor, mist, or gas. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Empty containers retain product residue, (liquid and/or vapor), and can be dangerous. Take precautionary measures against static discharges. Keep container tightly closed. Avoid contact with heat, sparks and flame. Handle under an inert atmosphere. Store protected from air. If peroxide formation is suspected, do not open or move container. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose empty containers to heat, sparks or open flames.
Protection
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators
A half-face organic vapor respirator may be worn for up to ten times the exposure limit, or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. A full-face piece organic vapor respirator may be worn up to 50 times the exposure limit, or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. For emergencies or instances where the exposure levels are not known, use a full-face piece positive-pressure, air-supplied respirator. An organic vapor respirator is predicted to have a short service life (less than 30 minutes at concentrations of ten times the TLV/PEL) when used with this material.
Small spills/leaks
Avoid runoff into storm sewers and ditches which lead to waterways. Remove all sources of ignition. Absorb spill using an absorbent, non-combustible material such as earth, sand, or vermiculite. Use a spark-proof tool. Place under an inert atmosphere. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors.
Disposal code
1
Stability
Stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage. Heat, light, and long standing contribute to instability. Reacts with air to form explosive peroxides.
Incompatibilities
Can react dangerously with acetyl peroxide, liquid oxygen, bromoazide, chlorine, and strong oxidizers such as nitrates.
Decomposition
Carbon monoxide, irritating and toxic fumes and gases, carbon dioxide, peroxides.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
-45
Autoignition, °C
160
Upper exp. limit, %
36
Lower exp. limit, %
1.9
Fire fighting
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. Extremely flammable. Material will readily ignite at room temperature. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Water may be ineffective. Material is lighter than water and a fire may be spread by the use of water. Containers may explode in the heat of a fire. May form explosive peroxides. Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flame. May re-ignite after fire is extinguished. Extinguishing media: For small fires, use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, water spray or alcohol-resistant foam. Water may be ineffective. For large fires, use water spray, fog or alcohol-resistant foam. Do NOT use straight streams of water.
Fire potential
Extremely flammable liquid and vapor.
Hazards
Vapor is heavier than air and may travel considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back. May form explosive peroxides on long standing or after exposure to air or light. May explode when brought in contact with nitric acid. Sensitivity to mechanical impact.
Combustion products
Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases.
Health
2
 
Flammability
4
 
 
Reactivity
1
 

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
TLV: 400 ppm; 1210 mg/m3 (as TWA); 500 ppm; 1520 mg/m3 (STEL) (ACGIH 1993-1994). OSHA PEL: TWA 400 ppm (1200 mg/m3) NIOSH REL: See Appendix D NIOSH IDLH: 1900 ppm LEL
Poison_Class
4
Exposure effects
Repeated exposures may be habit forming. Prolonged exposures may result in headache, drowsiness, excitation, and psychic disturbances. Teratogenic effects are possible.
   Ingestion
Irritating to the mucous membranes. Ingestion of 1 or 2 ounces may be fatal. Because of volatility the stomach becomes distended, which may cause belching. Other symptoms can include vomiting, unconsciousness, and coma.
   Inhalation
Irritant. General anesthesia by inhalation can occur. Continued exposure may lead to respiratory failure or death. Early symptoms include irritation of nose and throat, vomiting, and irregular respiration, followed by dizziness, drowsiness, and unconsciousness.
   Skin
Irritating to the skin and mucous membranes by drying effect. Can cause dermatitis on prolonged exposure. May be absorbed through skin.
   Eyes
May cause irritation, redness and pain. Prolonged exposures to high concentrations of vapor can cause eye damage.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Do NOT induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Possible aspiration hazard. Get medical aid immediately.
   Inhalation
Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical aid. DO NOT use mouth-to-mouth respiration. If breathing has ceased apply artificial respiration using oxygen and a suitable mechanical device such as a bag and a mask.
   Skin
Get medical aid immediately. Immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse.
   Eyes
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid.

Transport.
UN number
1155
Response guide
Hazard class
3
Packing Group
I
 
USCG CHRIS Code
EET
 
HS Code
2909 11 00
 
Std. Transport #
4908156 4908157
 
IMO Chemical Code
17
IMO Pollution Category
III
IMO Hazard code
S