Ethyl formate

  • Formic acid, ethyl ester
  • Ethyl methanoate
Formula
HCOOC2H5
Structure
Description
Colorless liquid with a fruity or aromatic odor.
Uses
In lacquer industry, in artificial silk manufacture as solvent for cellulose acetate, in manufacture of safety glass, in shoe industry as solvent for celluloid, insecticide.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
109-94-4
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
203-721-0
EC Index Number
607-015-00-7
EC Class
Highly flammable; Harmful; Irritant
R 11 20/22 36/37
S 9 16 24 26 33
RTECS
LQ8400000
RTECS class
Agricultural Chemical and Pesticide; Tumorigen; Primary Irritant
UN (DOT)
1190
Merck
13,3841
Beilstein/Gmelin
906769
Beilstein Reference
4-02-00-00023
EPA OPP
43102
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-1185
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C3H6O2
Formula mass
74.08
Melting point, °C
-81 - -79
Boiling point, °C
148
Vapor pressure, mmHg
194 (20 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
2.5
Saturation Concentration
252700 ppm (25.27%) at 20 C; 394800 ppm (39.48%) at 30 C (calculated)
Evaporization number
1.8 (butyl acetate=1)
Critical temperature
235
Critical pressure
46.6
Density
0.9208 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
9 g/100 mL
Viscosity
0.402 cp (20 C)
Surface tension
23.84 g/s2 (20 C)
Refractive index
1.3597 (20 C)
Dielectric constant
9.1 (20 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
0.23
Heat of fusion
9.2 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization
28.8 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion
-1624 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep away from heat, sparks, and flame. Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Flammables-area. Keep in contact with calcium chloride.
B2 D2B
Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Use only in a well ventilated area. Ground and bond containers when transferring material. Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Empty containers retain product residue, (liquid and/or vapor), and can be dangerous. Avoid ingestion and inhalation. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose empty containers to heat, sparks or open flames.
Protection
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators
Follow the OSHA respirator regulations found in 29CFR 1910.134 or European Standard EN 149. Always use a NIOSH or European Standard EN 149 approved respirator when necessary.
Small spills/leaks
Absorb spill with inert material, (e.g., dry sand or earth), then place into a chemical waste container.
Disposal code
1
Stability
Unstable.
Incompatibilities
Strong oxidizing agents, strong acids, strong bases.
Decomposition
Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
-20
Autoignition, °C
440
Upper exp. limit, %
16.5
Lower exp. limit, %
2.7
Fire fighting
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. Extremely flammable liquid. Vapors may be heavier than air. They can spread along the ground and collect in low or confined areas. To extinguish fire, use water fog, dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or regular foam. Contact professional fire-fighters immediately.
Fire potential
Moderately flammable. Combustion probable.
Hazards
Vapor is heavier than air and may travel long distance to a source of ignition and flash back.
Combustion products
Toxic gases and vapors (such as carbon monoxide) may be released in a fire involving ethyl formate.
Health
2
 
Flammability
3
 
 
Reactivity
0
 

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
TLV: 100 ppm; 303 mg/m3 (as TWA) (ACGIH 1996). OSHA PEL: TWA 100 ppm (300 mg/m3) NIOSH REL: TWA 100 ppm (300 mg/m3) NIOSH IDLH: 1500 ppm
Poison_Class
4
Exposure effects
Ethyl formate is a narcotic and may cause CNS depression leading to death due to circulatory and respiratory failure without convulsions or coma. No data were available to assess the teratogenic potential of this agent. <br>No data were available to assess the potential effects of exposure to this agent during pregnancy or lactation.
   Ingestion
May cause severe gastrointestinal tract irritation with nausea, vomiting and possible burns. May be harmful if swallowed.
   Inhalation
Exposure produces central nervous system depression. May cause severe irritation of the respiratory tract with possible burns. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. Inhalation of high concentrations may cause narcotic effects.
   Skin
Contact with skin causes irritation and possible burns, especially if the skin is wet or moist.
   Eyes
Causes eye irritation and possible burns.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid immediately.
   Inhalation
Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen.
   Skin
Get medical aid immediately. Immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes.
   Eyes
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid immediately.

Transport.
UN number
1190
Response guide
Hazard class
3
Packing Group
II
 
USCG CHRIS Code
EFM
 
HS Code
2915 13 00
 
Std. Transport #
4908167