Colorless liquid with pungent odor, lachrymator.
Pharmaceutical and pesticide intermediate.
Registry Numbers and Inventories.
highly flammable, very toxic, irritant, sensitizing
R 11 26 22 36/37/38 42/43
S 23 26 36/37/39 45
Swiss Giftliste 1
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Melting point, °C
Boiling point, °C
Vapor pressure, mmHg
209 (25 C)
230,300 ppm (23%) at 24 C; 17108 ppm (1.71%) at 22.8 C (calculated)
0.90 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
1.3808 (20 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
Heat of vaporization
Heat of combustion
Hazards and Protection.
Keep in a cool, dry, dark location in a tightly sealed container or cylinder. Keep away from incompatible materials, ignition sources and untrained individuals. Secure and label area. Protect containers/cylinders from physical damage.
B2 D1B D2B
All chemicals should be considered hazardous. Avoid direct physical contact. Use appropriate, approved safety equipment. Untrained individuals should not handle this chemical or its container. Handling should occur in a chemical fume hood.
Wear appropriate chemical protective clothing. If contact with the material anticipated, wear appropriate chemical protective clothing.
Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus.
Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard. Use water spray to knock-down vapors.
Oxides of carbon and nitrogen, HCN.
Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Solid streams of water may be ineffective. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Use alcohol foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide. Keep run-off water out of sewers and water sources.
Vapors form explosive mixtures with air: indoors, outdoors, and sewers explosion hazards. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Substance will react with water (some violently) releasing flammable, toxic or corrosive gases and runoff. Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated or if contaminated with water.
Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases.
Acute exposure may cause dyspnea. Pulmonary edema-induced hypoxia may produce CNS depression. There is conflicting data as to whether methyl isocyanate is fetotoxic, however, it crosses the placental barrier. Reports from Bhopal, India and animal studies suggest a high degree of adverse reproductive effects and teratogenicity.
Gastrointestinal irritation and vomiting may occur.
Low concentrations may produce mild respiratory irritation. High concentrations result in cough, dyspnea, increase secretions, chest pain, tightness and asthmatic episodes. Pulmonary edema may be seen. Chronic exposures may result in chronic obstructive lung disease.
Skin irritation is likely. Contact can cause chemical burns (sittig, 1991; hsdb, 2001).
Contact with the eye is extremely irritating and may cause permanent damage with cataract formation, trachoma and chronic blepharitis.
Administer charcoal as a slurry (240 ml water/30 g charcoal). Usual dose: 25 to 100 g in adults/adolescents.
Hospitalization and observation for 72 hours is advisable to detect a late onset of pulmonary edema. Evaluate chest x-ray, fev 1, and arterial blood gases. Pulmonary edema (noncardiogenic): maintain ventilation and oxygenation and evaluate with frequent arterial blood gas or pulse oximetry monitoring. Early use of peep and mechanical ventilation may be needed. Bronchospasm - treat symptomatically with oxygen, bronchodilators, and steroids.
Remove contaminated clothing and wash exposed area thoroughly with soap and water. A physician should examine the area if irritation or pain persists. Treat dermal irritation or burns with standard topical therapy. Patients developing dermal hypersensitivity reactions may require treatment with systemic or topical corticosteroids or antihistamines.
The liquid in contact with the eye is extremely irritating and may cause permanent damage. Irrigate exposed eyes with copious amounts of tepid water for at least 15 minutes. If irritation, pain, swelling, lacrimation, or photophobia persist, the patient should be seen in a health care facility. Topical antibiotics may be useful in secondary infection. Severe iritis may be treated with topical atropine or homatropine.