Ethyl nitrate

  • Nitric acid, ethyl ester
Formula
C2H5NO3
Structure
Description
A clear colorless liquid with a pleasant odor.
Uses
Organic synthesis of drugs, perfumes, and dyes, and as rocket propellant.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
625-58-1
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
210-903-3
EC Index Number
007-007-00-8
EC Class
Explosive
RTECS
QU7900000
RTECS class
Mutagen
UN (DOT)
1993
Beilstein/Gmelin
1700275
Beilstein Reference
4-01-00-01327
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-5471
Canada DSL/NDSL
NDSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C2H5NO3
Formula mass
91.08
Melting point, °C
-94.6
Boiling point, °C
17
Vapor pressure, mmHg
64
Vapor density (air=1)
3.1
Density
1.1352 g/cm3 (0 C)
Solubility in water
Decomposes
Refractive index
1.38484 (21 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
1.23
Heat of fusion
8.5 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization
38.52 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion
-1357 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep in a cool, dry, dark location in a tightly sealed container or cylinder. Keep away from incompatible materials, ignition sources and untrained individuals. Secure and label area. Protect containers/cylinders from physical damage.
Handling
All chemicals should be considered hazardous. Avoid direct physical contact. Use appropriate, approved safety equipment. Untrained individuals should not handle this chemical or its container. Handling should occur in a chemical fume hood.
Protection
Wear appropriate chemical protective clothing.
Respirators
Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus.
Small spills/leaks
Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard. Use water spray to knock-down vapors. Land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material. Dike surface flow using soil, sand bags, foamed polyurethane, or foamed concrete. Absorb bulk liquid with fly ash, cement powder, or commercial sorbents. Water spill: Use natural barriers or oil spill control booms to limit spill travel. Remove trapped material with suction hoses.
Stability
No data.
Incompatibilities
If mixed with reducing agents, including hydrides, sulfides and nitrides, they may begin a vigorous reaction that culminates in a detonation.
Decomposition
On decomposition, they emit toxic fumes nitrates when heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of nitrogen oxides.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
-34
Upper exp. limit, %
50
Lower exp. limit, %
4.1
Fire fighting
Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Solid streams of water may spread fire. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Use foam, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide.
Fire potential
HIGHLY FLAMMABLE.
Hazards
Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. May polymerize explosively when heated or involved in a fire. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water. Substance may be transported hot.
Combustion products
Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases.
Health
2
 
Flammability
3
 
 
Reactivity
4
 

Health.
Poison_Class
2
Exposure effects
Throbbing headache is common. Seizures have been reported following severe intoxication. Behavioral deficits were observed in the adult offspring of rats who received sodium nitrite prenatally.
   Ingestion
Initial effects of ingestion are gastric irritation with nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain.
   Inhalation
Respiratory depression and cyanosis may be noted, due to methemoglobinemia.
   Skin
Cyanosis that minimally responds to oxygen therapy may be noted, and is indicative of probable methemoglobinemia.
   Eyes
Visual field defects have been reported in sodium nitrite poisoning.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Immediate life support measures should be provided because of associated hypotension, seizures, and methemoglobinemia-induced anoxia. Emesis: ipecac-induced vomiting is not recommended because of the potential for seizures.
   Inhalation
Move patient to fresh air. Monitor for respiratory distress. Administer oxygen and assist ventilation as required. Treatment should include recommendations listed in the oral exposure section when appropriate.
   Skin
Remove contaminated clothing and wash exposed area thoroughly with soap and water. A physician should examine the area if irritation or pain persists. Some chemicals can produce systemic poisoning by absorption through intact skin. Carefully observe patients with dermal exposure for the development of any systemic signs or symptoms and administer symptomatic treatment as necessary. Treatment should include recommendations listed in the oral exposure section when appropriate.
   Eyes
Irrigate exposed eyes with copious amounts of tepid water for at least 15 minutes. If irritation, pain, swelling, lacrimation, or photophobia persist, the patient should be seen in a health care facility.

Transport.
UN number
1993
Response guide
Hazard class
3
Packing Group
I; II; III
 
USCG CHRIS Code
ETN
 
Std. Transport #
4907010