Ethyl nitrite

  • Nitrous ether
  • Nitrous acid ethyl ester
  • Spirit of ethyl nitrite.
Formula
C2H5ONO
Structure
Description
Colorless or yellowish, clear liquid. Sweet, rum-like odor.
Uses
For preparing spirit nitrous ether.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
109-95-5
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
203-722-6
EC Index Number
007-006-00-2
EC Class
Explosive; Harmful
RTECS
RA0810000
RTECS class
Other
UN (DOT)
1194
Merck
12,3877
Beilstein/Gmelin
1699562
Beilstein Reference
4-01-00-01327
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-1192
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C2H5NO2
Formula mass
75.07
Melting point, °C
-50
Boiling point, °C
17
Vapor pressure, mmHg
906 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
2.6
Density
0.9223 g/cm3 (0 C)
Solubility in water
Slightly soluble
Viscosity
0.27 cp (0.2 C)
Surface tension
16.5 g/s2 (15 C)
Refractive index
1.3431 (8.8 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
1.04
Heat of vaporization
27.84 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion
-1399 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep tightly closed, in a cool place, protected from light. Store away from heat, oxidizers, and sunlight. Must be stored in a dry location. Outside or detached storage is preferred.
Handling
All chemicals should be considered hazardous. Avoid direct physical contact. Use appropriate, approved safety equipment. Untrained individuals should not handle this chemical or its container. Handling should occur in a chemical fume hood.
Protection
Goggles, or face shield; rubber gloves.
Respirators
Self-contained breathing apparatus.
Small spills/leaks
Make no contact with the spilled material. Fully encapsulating, vapor protective clothing should be worn for spills and leaks with no fire. ELIMINATE all ignition sources and ground all equipment. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. Use clean non-sparking tools to collect absorbed material.
Stability
On keeping, it gradually decomposes, becoming acid and oxides of nitrogen form. Decomposes is hastened by air, light, and moisture.
Incompatibilities
Highly dangerous; when heated to decomposition or on contact with acid or acid fumes, emits highly toxic fumes of no(x).

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
15
Autoignition, °C
90
Fire fighting
Use of water spray when fighting fire may be inefficient. Small Fires: Dry chemical, carbon dioxide, water spray or alcohol-resistant foam. Large Fires: Water spray, fog or alcohol-resistant foam.
Fire potential
Flammable liquid.
Hazards
Closed containers may rupture violently when heated.
Combustion products
Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases.
Health
4
 
Flammability
4
 
 
Reactivity
4
 

Health.
Poison_Class
3
Exposure effects
Throbbing headache is common. Seizures have been reported following severe intoxication. Behavioral deficits were observed in the adult offspring of rats who received sodium nitrite prenatally.
   Ingestion
Initial effects of ingestion are gastric irritation with nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain.
   Inhalation
Respiratory depression and cyanosis may be noted, due to methemoglobinemia.
   Skin
Cyanosis that minimally responds to oxygen therapy may be noted, and is indicative of probable methemoglobinemia.
   Eyes
Visual field defects have been reported in sodium nitrite poisoning.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Immediate life support measures should be provided because of associated hypotension, seizures, and methemoglobinemia-induced anoxia. Emesis: ipecac-induced vomiting is not recommended because of the potential for seizures.
   Inhalation
Move patient to fresh air. Monitor for respiratory distress. Administer oxygen and assist ventilation as required. Treatment should include recommendations listed in the oral exposure section when appropriate.
   Skin
Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush with running water for at least 20 minutes. Wash skin with soap and water.
   Eyes
Irrigate exposed eyes with copious amounts of tepid water for at least 15 minutes. If irritation, pain, swelling, lacrimation, or photophobia persist, the patient should be seen in a health care facility.

Transport.
UN number
1194
Response guide
Hazard class
3
Packing Group
I
 
USCG CHRIS Code
ETN
 
Std. Transport #
4907020