Thick, colorless to light-yellowish liquid with an ammonia-like odor, hygroscopic, lachrymator.
Solvent for casein, albumin, shellac, and sulfur, emulsifier, stabilizing rubber latex, as inhibitor in antifreeze solutions, in textile lubricants, pharmaceutic aid (aminophylline injection stabilizer).
Registry Numbers and Inventories.
EC Index Number
Flammable; Harmful; Corrosive; Sensitising
R 10 21/22 34 42/43
S 23 26 36/37/39 45
Mutagen; Reproductive Effector; Human Data; Primary Irritant
Swiss Giftliste 1
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Melting point, °C
Boiling point, °C
Vapor pressure, mmHg
16 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
1.3% at 20 C
0.91 (butyl acetate = 1)
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 1.0 ppm
0.898 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
1.54 cp (25 C)
40.77 g/s2 (20 C)
1.454 (20 C)
1.83 D (25 C)
16 (18 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
Heat of fusion
Heat of vaporization
Heat of combustion
Hazards and Protection.
Keep away from sources of ignition. Store in a cool, dry place. Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Flammables-area. Store protected from moisture.
B2 D1B D2A D2B E
Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Use with adequate ventilation. Use spark-proof tools and explosion proof equipment. Do not breathe dust, vapor, mist, or gas. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Empty containers retain product residue, (liquid and/or vapor), and can be dangerous. Keep container tightly closed. Do not ingest or inhale. Use only in a chemical fume hood. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose empty containers to heat, sparks or open flames.
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
A full facepiece respirator with organic vapor cartridge may be worn up to 50 times the exposure limit or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. For emergencies or instances where the exposure levels are not known, use a full-facepiece positive-pressure, air-supplied respirator.
Wear a self contained breathing apparatus and appropriate Personal protection. (See Exposure Controls, Personal Protection section). Scoop up with a nonsparking tool, then place into a suitable container for disposal. Remove all sources of ignition. Absorb spill using an absorbent, non-combustible material such as earth, sand, or vermiculite. Use a spark-proof tool.
Absorbs carbon dioxide from air to form nonvolatile carbonate.
Acids, strong oxidizers, chlorinated organic compounds, copper alloys. Corrosive toward aluminum, zinc.
Nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ammonia and/or derivatives.
Upper exp. limit, %
Lower exp. limit, %
Wear full protective clothing and NIOSH-approved self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in the pressure demand or other positive pressure mode. Extinguish with dry chemical, alcohol foam or carbon dioxide. Use water spray to cool fire-exposed containers, to dilute liquid, and control vapor.
Moderately flammable. Combustion with moderate heating.
Burning rate: 2.2 mm/minute. When exposed to heat or flame, the material has a moderate fire potential. The material can react readily with oxidizing materials. Containers may explode in heat of fire. Material emits nitrogen oxides when burned. Avoid carbon disulfide, silver perchlorate, imines, oxidizing materials. Stable.
Toxic gases and vapors (carbon monoxide) may be released in a fire.
TLV (as TWA): 10 ppm; 25 mg/m3 (ACGIH 1992-1993). MAK: 10 ppm; 25 mg/m3; (1992). OSHA PEL: TWA 10 ppm (25 mg/m3) NIOSH REL: TWA 10 ppm (25 mg/m3) NIOSH IDLH: 1000 ppm
Prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause defatting and dermatitis. Repeated exposure may cause allergic respiratory reaction (asthma). Liver, kidneys and lungs may be damaged from repeated exposure.
Harmful if swallowed. May cause severe gastrointestinal tract irritation with nausea, vomiting and possible burns. May cause effects similar to those for inhalation exposure.
Causes respiratory tract irritation. May cause severe allergic respiratory reaction. Irritation may lead to chemical pneumonitis and pulmonary edema. May cause liver and kidney damage. Causes chemical burns to the respiratory tract. May cause heart disturbances, possibly leading to cardiac arrest and death. May cause neurotoxic effects including paresthesia.
Harmful if absorbed through the skin. May cause skin sensitization, an allergic reaction, which becomes evident upon re-exposure to this material. Contact with the skin may cause severe iritation and necrosis.
Causes eye burns. May result in corneal injury. Causes redness and pain. Lachrymator.
Do NOT induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Get medical aid immediately.
Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen.
Immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Get medical aid if irritation develops or persists. Wash clothing before reuse. Destroy contaminated shoes.
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid immediately. Do NOT allow victim to rub or keep eyes closed.