Furfural

  • 2-Furancarboxaldehyde
  • 2-Furfuraldehyde
  • 2-Furalmethanal
  • Furfurol
  • Fural
Formula
C5H4O2
Structure
Description
Colorless, oily liquid when very pure, turns yellow to reddish brown on exposure to light and air, almond-like odor, similar to benzaldehyde.
Uses
Source of furfuryl alcohol, tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol, furan, tetrahydrofuran, poly(oxytetramethylene) glycol and a variety of synthetic resins, for the extractive distillation of butadiene and other c4 hydrocarbons for the manufacture of synthetic rubber, and for the production of light-colored wood resins.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
98-01-1
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
202-627-7
EC Index Number
605-010-00-4
EC Class
Carcinogenic Category 3; Toxic; Harmful; Irritant
R 21 23/25 36/37 40
S 26 36/37/39 45
RTECS
LT7000000
RTECS class
Tumorigen; Mutagen; Reproductive Effector; Human Data; Primary Irritant
UN (DOT)
1199
Merck
13,4325
Beilstein/Gmelin
105755
Beilstein Reference
5-17-09-00292
RCRA
U125
EPA OPP
43301
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-2258
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C5H4O2
Formula mass
96.09
Melting point, °C
-39
Boiling point, °C
162
Vapor pressure, mmHg
2.2 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
3.31
Saturation Concentration
0.1% at 20 C
Evaporization number
75 (diethyl ether = 1)
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 0.0240 mg/m3
Critical temperature
397
Critical pressure
54.3
Density
1.15 g/cm3
Solubility in water
80 g/L (20 C)
Viscosity
0.68 cp (99 C)
Surface tension
45.7 g/s2 (-22 C)
Refractive index
1.51862 (20 C)
Dipole moment
3.36 D
Dielectric constant
41.9 (20 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
0.41
Heat of fusion
9.5 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization
39.8 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion
-2340 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep away from heat, sparks, and flame. Keep away from sources of ignition. Do not store in direct sunlight. Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Flammables-area. Storage under a nitrogen blanket has been recommended. Store protected from light and air. Store under an inert atmosphere. Store in air tight containers.
B3 D1B D2B
Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Ground and bond containers when transferring material. Use spark-proof tools and explosion proof equipment. Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Do not breathe dust, vapor, mist, or gas. Empty containers retain product residue, (liquid and/or vapor), and can be dangerous. Avoid contact with heat, sparks and flame. Do not ingest or inhale. Store protected from light. Handle under an inert atmosphere. Store protected from air. Use only in a chemical fume hood. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose empty containers to heat, sparks or open flames.
Protection
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators
A full facepiece respirator with organic vapor cartridge may be worn up to 50 times the exposure limit or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. For emergencies or instances where the exposure levels are not known, use a full-facepiece positive-pressure, air-supplied respirator.
Small spills/leaks
Absorb spill with inert material, (e.g., dry sand or earth), then place into a chemical waste container. Wash area with soap and water. Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Remove all sources of ignition. Use a spark-proof tool. Provide ventilation. Place under an inert atmosphere. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors.
Disposal code
9
Stability
Stable under normal temperatures and pressures. Substance undergoes color change upon exposure to light and air. Volatile in steam. May undergo polymerization on contact with strong mineral acids or alkalies.
Incompatibilities
Strong oxidizing agents, strong acids, strong bases, alkalies, sodium hydrogen carbonate, mineral acids, air.
Decomposition
Carbon monoxide, irritating and toxic fumes and gases, carbon dioxide.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
58
Autoignition, °C
315
Upper exp. limit, %
19.3
Lower exp. limit, %
2.1
Fire fighting
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Will burn if involved in a fire. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Containers may explode in the heat of a fire. Extinguishing media: Use water spray to cool fire-exposed containers. Water may be ineffective. Use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or alcohol-resistant foam. Do NOT use straight streams of water.
Fire potential
Flammable liquid and vapor.
Hazards
Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Reacts violently with oxidants. Reacts violently with strong acids and bases causing fire and explosion hazards.
Combustion products
Irritating vapors are generated when heated
Health
3
 
Flammability
2
 
 
Reactivity
1
 

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
TLV (as TWA): 2 ppm; 7.9 mg/m3 (skin) (ACGIH 1992-1993). MAK: 5 ppm; 20 mg/m3; H (1992). OSHA PEL: TWA 5 ppm (20 mg/m3) skin NIOSH REL: See Appendix D NIOSH IDLH: 100 ppm
Poison_Class
3
Exposure effects
Prolonged or repeated eye contact may cause conjunctivitis. May cause liver and kidney damage. Repeated exposure may cause sensitization dermatitis. Laboratory experiments have resulted in mutagenic effects. Animal studies have reported the development of tumors.
   Ingestion
Harmful if swallowed. Causes gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. May cause central nervous system depression, characterized by excitement, followed by headache, dizziness, drowsiness, and nausea. Advanced stages may cause collapse, unconsciousness, coma and possible death due to respiratory failure. Effects may be delayed 2 to 4 hours.
   Inhalation
Causes irritation to the mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract. Symptoms may include sore throat, labored breathing, and headache. Higher concentrations act on the central nervous system and may cause lung congestion. Inhalation may be fatal.
   Skin
May cause skin sensitization, an allergic reaction, which becomes evident upon re-exposure to this material. May cause photosensitization in certain individuals. Effects of contact may be delayed. Causes skin irritation and possible burns. Substance is readily absorbed through the slkin.
   Eyes
May cause irreversible eye injury. Causes eye irritation and possible burns.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Do NOT induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid immediately.
   Inhalation
Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. DO NOT use mouth-to-mouth respiration. If breathing has ceased apply artificial respiration using oxygen and a suitable mechanical device such as a bag and a mask.
   Skin
Get medical aid immediately. Immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse.
   Eyes
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid immediately.

Transport.
UN number
1199
Response guide
Hazard class
6.1
Packing Group
II
 
USCG CHRIS Code
FFA
 
HS Code
2932 12 00
 
Std. Transport #
4921047 4912046 4923118
 
IMO Chemical Code
17
IMO Pollution Category
C
IMO Hazard code
S/P