Clear colorless to pale yellow or amber liquid with a faint, burning odor.
As a solvent for cellulose ethers & esters, ester gum, dyes, coumarone & natural resins, in manufacture of phenolic resins & dark-colored thermosetting resins, liq propellant.
Registry Numbers and Inventories.
EC Index Number
Tumorigen; Mutagen; Primary Irritant
Swiss Giftliste 1
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Melting point, °C
Boiling point, °C
Vapor pressure, mmHg
1.0 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
530 ppm (0.053%) at 20 C; 800 ppm (0.08%) at 25 C (calculated)
0.04 (n-butyl acetate = 1)
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 8 ppm
1.1359 g/cm3 (16 C)
Solubility in water
4.40 cp (30 C)
0.038 n/m at 20 C.
Partition coefficient, pKow
Heat of vaporization
Heat of combustion
Hazards and Protection.
Keep away from sources of ignition. Do not store in direct sunlight. Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Do not expose to air. Storage under a nitrogen blanket has been recommended. Store under an inert atmosphere. Keep away from organic acids.
B3 D1A D2B
Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Do not breathe dust, vapor, mist, or gas. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Empty containers retain product residue, (liquid and/or vapor), and can be dangerous. Avoid contact with heat, sparks and flame. Do not ingest or inhale. Handle under an inert atmosphere. Store protected from air. Use only in a chemical fume hood. Store and handle protected from air. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose empty containers to heat, sparks or open flames.
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
A respiratory protection program that meets OSHA's 29 CFR 1910.134 and ANSI Z88.2 requirements or European Standard EN 149 must be followed whenever workplace conditions warrant a respirator's use.
Absorb spill with inert material, (e.g., dry sand or earth), then place into a chemical waste container. Wash area with soap and water. Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Remove all sources of ignition. Use a spark-proof tool. Provide ventilation. Place under an inert atmosphere.
Stable under normal temperatures and pressures. Substance undergoes color change upon exposure to air. May undergo polymerization in contact with organic acids. May undergo a color change due to autoxidation and intermolecular dehydration during storage.
Acids, strong oxidizing agents, air, acid chlorides, organic acids, oxygen, fuming nitric acid.
Carbon monoxide, irritating and toxic fumes and gases, carbon dioxide.
Upper exp. limit, %
Lower exp. limit, %
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Combustible Liquid. Forms explosive mixtures with air. Extinguishing media: Use water spray to cool fire-exposed containers. Use foam, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out.
May burn but does not ignite readily.
When heated, vapors may form explosive mixtures with air: indoors, outdoors, and sewers explosion hazards. May polymerize explosively when heated or involved in a fire. Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may pollute waterways. Substance may be transported in a molten form.
Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases.
OSHA PEL: TWA 50 ppm (200 mg/m3) NIOSH REL: TWA 10 ppm (40 mg/m3) ST 15 ppm (60 mg/m3) skin NIOSH IDLH: 75 ppm
Overexposure may cause delayed kidney injury. Prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause dermatitis. Prolonged exposure to high vapor concentrations may cause eye injury.
Harmful if swallowed. Causes gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. May cause central nervous system depression, characterized by excitement, followed by headache, dizziness, drowsiness, and nausea. Advanced stages may cause collapse, unconsciousness, coma and possible death due to respiratory failure. Effects may be delayed 2 to 4 hours.
Harmful if inhaled. Effects of inhalation may be delayed. Vapor or mist is irritating to the mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract. Inhalation may produce severe bronchitis with spasms, coughing, and chest pain.
Causes skin irritation. Harmful if absorbed through the skin.
Vapors cause eye irritation.
Do NOT induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid immediately.
Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. DO NOT use mouth-to-mouth respiration. If breathing has ceased apply artificial respiration using oxygen and a suitable mechanical device such as a bag and a mask.
Get medical aid immediately. Immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes.
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid immediately.