Glycollonitrile

  • Cyanomethanol
  • Formaldehyde cyanohydrin
  • Hydroxyacetonitrile
  • Glyconitrile
Formula
C2H3NO
Structure
Description
Odorless colorless oil with a sweetish taste.
Uses
Manufacture of intermediates in pharmaceutical production & as component of synthetic resins.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
107-16-4
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
203-469-1
RTECS
AM0350000
RTECS class
Primary Irritant
Beilstein/Gmelin
605328
Beilstein Reference
4-03-00-00598
RCRA
D003
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-8106
Canada DSL/NDSL
NDSL
US TSCA
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C2H3NO
Formula mass
57.06
Melting point, °C
<-72
Boiling point, °C
183
Vapor pressure, mmHg
0.06 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
1.96
Density
1.1 g/cm3 (12 C)
Solubility in water
Very soluble
Refractive index
1.41168 (19 C)
pKa/pKb
11.31 (pKa)
Partition coefficient, pKow
-1.24
Heat of vaporization
51.4 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion
-1076 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep in a cool, dry, dark location in a tightly sealed container or cylinder. Keep away from incompatible materials, ignition sources and untrained individuals. Secure and label area. Protect containers/cylinders from physical damage.
Handling
All chemicals should be considered hazardous. Avoid direct physical contact. Use appropriate, approved safety equipment. Untrained individuals should not handle this chemical or its container. Handling should occur in a chemical fume hood.
Protection
Wear appropriate clothing to prevent any reasonable probability of skin contact. Wear eye protection to prevent any possibility of eye contact.
Respirators
Any self contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece and operated in a pressure demand or other positive pressure mode or any supplied air respirator with a full facepiece and operated in a pressure demand or other positive pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.
Small spills/leaks
(Non-Specific -- Acetonitrile) Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Use water spray to disperse vapors and dilute standing pools of liquid. Avoid breathing vapors. Keep upwind. Avoid bodily contact with the material.
Stability
No data.
Incompatibilities
Traces of alkalis promote violent polymerization.
Decomposition
When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of nitrogen oxide and cyanides.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
78
Fire fighting
(Non-Specific -- Acetonitrile) Cool containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far away as possible. Avoid breathing vapors. Keep upwind. Wear self-contained breathing apparatus. Avoid bodily contact with the material. Wear boots, protective gloves, and goggles.(Non-Specific -- Acetonitrile) Do not extinguish fire if material is leaking and flow cannot be stopped. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Use alcohol foam, carbon dioxide, or dry chemical.
Hazards
Moderate explosion hazard when exposed to heat or by spontaneous chemical reaction in the presence of alkalies if uninhibited. When heated to decomposition, it emits highly toxic fumes of cyanide and nitrogen oxides. Unstable, may explode on standing. Hazardous polymerization may occur. avoid the presence of alkalis, and exposure to heat.
Combustion products
When heated to decomposition, it emits highly toxic fumes of cyanide and nitrogen oxides.

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
NIOSH REL: C 2 ppm (5 mg/m3) [15-minute]
Poison_Class
2
Exposure effects
Rapid and irregular pulse has been seen. Rapid respirations may be followed by slow, labored breathing. Typical signs of CNS depression, such as headache, dizziness, ataxia, weakness, confusion, and nausea were noted in a dermal exposure incident. Seizures and coma may occur. It is closely related to acetonitrile, for which more toxicologic information is available. No reproductive studies were found for formaldehyde cyanohydrin. Acetonitrile, which is structurally similar, is fetotoxic and teratogenic in animals.
   Ingestion
Nausea, vomiting, and anorexia were seen with dermal exposure.
   Inhalation
Extremely toxic, exposure by any route should be avoided; may have fatal consequences; death from asphyxiation may occur similar to that resulting from hydrogen cyanide.
   Skin
Gives no immediate sensation on the skin, but can be fatal by this route.
   Eyes
Formaldehyde cyanohydrin is irritating to the eyes.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Do not induce emesis. Activated charcoal: administer charcoal as a slurry (240 ml water/30 g charcoal). Usual dose: 25 to 100 g in adults/adolescents.
   Inhalation
Move patient to fresh air. Monitor for respiratory distress. If cough or difficulty breathing develops, evaluate for respiratory tract irritation, bronchitis, or pneumonitis. Administer oxygen and assist ventilation as required. Treat bronchospasm with beta2 agonist and corticosteroid aerosols.
   Skin
Remove contaminated clothing and wash exposed area thoroughly with soap and water. A physician should examine the area if irritation or pain persists. While cyanide can be absorbed through intact skin, most reported cases have involved whole-body immersion in cyanide solutions or large-area burns with molten cyanide solutions.
   Eyes
Irrigate exposed eyes with copious amounts of tepid water for at least 15 minutes. If irritation, pain, swelling, lacrimation, or photophobia persist, the patient should be seen in a health care facility. Experimental animals have developed serious systemic cyanide poisoning following ocular exposure. Human poisoning cases have not been reported due to eye exposure only. If systemic cyanide poisoning is suspected following eye exposure, refer to treatment recommendations in the inhalation exposure section above.

Transport.
USCG CHRIS Code
FCY