Glyoxal

  • Oxalaldehyde
  • Ethanedial
  • 1,2-Ethanedione
  • Biformyl
Formula
OHCCHO
Structure
Description
Yellow prisms or irregular pieces turning white on cooling; opaque @ 10 mild odor.
Uses
Permanent-press fabrics, dimensional stabilization of rayon & other fibers, insolubilizing agent for compd containing polyhydroxyl groups (polyvinyl alcohol, starch & cellulosic materials), insolubilizing of proteins (casein, gelatin & animal glue), leather tanning, paper coatings with hydroxyethylcellulose, reducing agent in dyeing textiles.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
107-22-2
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
203-474-9
EC Index Number
605-016-00-7
EC Class
Mutagenic Category 3; Harmful; Irritant; Sensitising
R 20 36/38 43 68
RTECS
MD2700000
RTECS class
Primary Irritant
UN (DOT)
1760
Merck
13,4522
Beilstein/Gmelin
1732463
Beilstein Reference
4-01-00-03625
EPA OPP
225900
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-1667
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C2H2O2
Formula mass
58.04
Boiling point, °C
51
Vapor pressure, mmHg
292 (25 C)
Density
1.14 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
600 g/L
Refractive index
1.3826 (20.5 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
-0.67
Heat of vaporization
29.4 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Commercial aqueous solution a mixture of several nonvolatile hydrated forms in equilibrium.
Handling
All chemicals should be considered hazardous. Avoid direct physical contact. Use appropriate, approved safety equipment. Untrained individuals should not handle this chemical or its container. Handling should occur in a chemical fume hood.
Protection
Wear protective clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus.
Respirators
Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA).
Small spills/leaks
If you should spill this chemical, use absorbent paper to pick up all liquid spill material. Seal the absorbent paper, as well as any of your clothing which may be contaminated, in a vapor-tight plastic bag for eventual disposal. Wash any surfaces you may have contaminated with a soap and water solution. Do not reenter the contaminated area until the Safety Officer (or other responsible person) has verified that the area has been properly cleaned.
Stability
Polymerizes violently when contacted with water.
Incompatibilities
React vigorously with strong oxidizing agents such as nitric acid Reacts with itself in the presence of base to give glyconates.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
-4
Autoignition, °C
285
Fire fighting
Fires involving this material can be controlled with a dry chemical, carbon dioxide or Halon extinguisher.
Fire potential
Slightly flammable. Very flammable at elevated temperatures.
Hazards
Heat may cause polymerization to a combustible, viscous material.
Combustion products
Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases.
Health
1
 
Flammability
0
 
 
Reactivity
0
 

Health.
Poison_Class
3
Exposure effects
Increased deep tendon reflexes, drowsiness, stupor, seizures and coma may be noted.
   Ingestion
Persistent vomiting, hematemesis and hemorrhagic gastritis due to the corrosive action of oxalic acid on the mucous membranes may occur immediately following ingestion.
   Inhalation
TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed.
   Skin
Dermal exposure may result in corrosive action on the skin. Skin lesions begin with epithelial cracking and the formation of slow-healing ulcers.
   Eyes
See Inhalation.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Volatile chemicals have a high risk of being aspirated into the victim's lungs during vomiting which increases the medical problems. If the victim is conscious and not convulsing, give 1 or 2 glasses of water to dilute the chemical and IMMEDIATELY call a hospital or poison control center. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital.
   Inhalation
IMMEDIATELY leave the contaminated area; take deep breaths of fresh air. If symptoms (such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, or burning in the mouth, throat, or chest) develop, call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital. Provide proper respiratory protection to rescuers entering an unknown atmosphere. Whenever possible, Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) should be used.
   Skin
IMMEDIATELY flood affected skin with water while removing and isolating all contaminated clothing. Gently wash all affected skin areas thoroughly with soap and water. If symptoms such as redness or irritation develop, IMMEDIATELY call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital for treatment.
   Eyes
First check the victim for contact lenses and remove if present. Flush victim's eyes with water or normal saline solution for 20 to 30 minutes while simultaneously calling a hospital or poison control center. Do not put any ointments, oils, or medication in the victim's eyes without specific instructions from a physician. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim after flushing eyes to a hospital even if no symptoms (such as redness or irritation) develop.

Transport.
UN number
1760
Response guide
Hazard class
8
Packing Group
I; II; III
 
USCG CHRIS Code
GOS
 
IMO Pollution Category
D