Isopentene

  • 3-Methyl-1-butene
  • Isoamylene
  • 3-Methylbutene
  • 3-Methylbut-1-ene
Formula
C5H10
Structure
Description
A colorless volatile liquid with a disagreeable odor.
Uses
Organic synthesis, high-octane fuel manufacture.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
563-45-1
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
209-249-1
UN (DOT)
2561
Beilstein/Gmelin
505980
Beilstein Reference
4-01-00-00825
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C5H10
Formula mass
70.13
Melting point, °C
-168
Boiling point, °C
20
Vapor pressure, mmHg
903 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
2.53
Critical temperature
194
Critical pressure
37
Density
0.6272 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
130 mg/L
Refractive index
1.3643 (20 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
2.23

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Grounding and bonding required. Keep separated from incompatible substances. Avoid heat, flames, sparks and other sources of ignition. Containers may rupture or explode if exposed to heat.
Handling
Handle in accordance with all current regulations and standards. Subject to storage regulations: U.S. OSHA 29 CFR 1910.106. Grounding and bonding required.
Protection
Wear appropriate protective gloves, clothing and goggles.
Respirators
Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA).
Small spills/leaks
Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard. Apply water spray or mist to knock down vapors. Land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material. Dike surface flow using soil, sand bags, foamed polyurethane, or foamed concrete. Absorb bulk liquid with fly ash, cement powder, or commercial sorbents. Water spill: Use natural barriers or oil spill control booms to limit spill travel. Remove trapped material with suction hoses.
Stability
Stable at normal temperatures and pressure.
Incompatibilities
May react vigorously with strong oxidizing agents May react exothermically with reducing agents to release hydrogen gas.
Decomposition
When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
-62
Autoignition, °C
365
Upper exp. limit, %
9.1
Lower exp. limit, %
1.5
Fire fighting
Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Use foam, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide. Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Keep run-off water out of sewers and water sources.
Fire potential
HIGHLY FLAMMABLE.
Hazards
Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. May polymerize explosively when heated or involved in a fire. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water.
Combustion products
Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases.
Health
1
 
Flammability
4
 
 
Reactivity
0
 

Health.
Exposure effects
Rapid breathing and rapid heart rate are common. In severe cases abnormally low blood pressure, apnea, and cardiac arrest develop. Mild central nervous system depression or excitation may occur after ingestion or vapor inhalation. CNS effects can occur secondary to hydrocarbon pneumonitis and hypoxia, or from additives and contaminants (aniline, heavy metals, camphor, or pesticides). Some hydrocarbons are simple asphyxiants (e.G., Methane, ethane, propane gasses) which can produce CNS effects secondary to hypoxia. In a prospective study in Toronto, major congenital malformations were noted in 13 of 125 fetuses of mothers exposed to organic solvents during pregnancy.
   Ingestion
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain may occur following ingestion.
   Inhalation
Coughing, choking, tachypnea, dyspnea, cyanosis, rales, hemoptysis, pulmonary edema, pneumatoceles, lipoid pneumonia, or respiratory arrest may develop following ingestion and aspiration.
   Skin
Dermal exposure may cause frostbite injury. Severe tissue burns have been reported.
   Eyes
Decreases in night vision, visual acuity, and visual fields (tunnel vision) may occur. Frothy mucous may be seen.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Pure petroleum distillates - gastric decontamination is not indicated in the majority of accidental ingestions, since systemic toxicity is unlikely from a pure petroleum distillate. Other hydrocarbons - gastric decontamination may be indicated if a large amount of a toxic hydrocarbon has been ingested (e.G., Suicide attempt) and if spontaneous vomiting has not occurred. Decontamination may also be indicated for ingestions of highly toxic hydrocarbons (e.G., Halogenated hydrocarbons, carbon tetrachloride) and for hydrocarbons which contain very toxic additives (e.G., Heavy metals, pesticides).
   Inhalation
Move patient to fresh air. Monitor for respiratory distress. If cough or difficulty breathing develops, evaluate for respiratory tract irritation, bronchitis, or pneumonitis. Administer oxygen and assist ventilation as required. Treat bronchospasm with beta2 agonist and corticosteroid aerosols.
   Skin
Remove contaminated clothing and wash exposed area thoroughly with soap and water. A physician should examine the area if irritation or pain persists. Some chemicals can produce systemic poisoning by absorption through intact skin. Carefully observe patients with dermal exposure for the development of any systemic signs or symptoms and administer symptomatic treatment as necessary.
   Eyes
Irrigate exposed eyes with copious amounts of tepid water for at least 15 minutes. If irritation, pain, swelling, lacrimation, or photophobia persist, the patient should be seen in a health care facility.

Transport.
UN number
2561
Response guide
Hazard class
3
Packing Group
I
 
USCG CHRIS Code
PTX
 
Std. Transport #
4909311
 
IMO Chemical Code
17
IMO Pollution Category
C
IMO Hazard code
P