Ketamine hydrochloride

  • Calipsol
  • (+/-)-2-(o-Chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)cyclohexanone hydrochloride
  • Ketaset
  • CI 581
  • Vetalar
  • Kalipsol
Formula
C13H16ClNO.ClH
Structure
Description
Colorless to white crystals.
Uses
Medication. Selective NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist; veterinary anesthetic.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
1867-66-9
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
217-484-6
22 36/37/38 40
RTECS
GW1400000
RTECS class
Drug; Mutagen; Reproductive Effector; Human Data
Beilstein/Gmelin
5318526
Beilstein Reference
6-14
New Zealand
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C13H16ClNO.ClH
Formula mass
274.21
Melting point, °C
262 - 263
Solubility in water
0.2 g/mL (20 C)

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep tightly closed. Store at 2-8 C
Protection
Compatible chemical-resistant gloves. Chemical safety goggles.
Respirators
Government approved respirator.
Small spills/leaks
Sweep up, place in a bag and hold for waste disposal. Avoid raising dust. Ventilate area and wash spill site after material pickup is complete.
Stability
Stable at normal temperatures and pressures.
Incompatibilities
Oxidizing agents.
Decomposition
When heated to decomposition, the material emits fumes of HCl and NOx.

Fire.
Fire fighting
Extinguish using Water spray. Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, or appropriate foam. Wear self-contained breathing apparatus and protective clothing to prevent contact with skin and eyes.
Hazards
Emits toxic fumes under fire conditions.
Health
2
 
Flammability
0
 
 
Reactivity
0
 

Health.
Exposure effects
Sedation and respiratory depression have been reported after overdose in medical settings. Patients usually awaken within a few hours, although sedation lasting 24 hours has been described. Ketamine has become a drug of abuse. Common effects include tachycardia, altered mental status, anxiety, palpitations, slurred speech hallucinations, nystagmus, mydriasis, mild hypertension and chest pain. Confusion, vomiting and memory loss are less common. Rarely seizures, polyneuropathy, or respiratory arrest may occur. Death is rare following ketamine abuse or overdose.
   Ingestion
Nausea and vomiting have been reported.
   Inhalation
Respiratory depression, apnea, and respiratory arrest may occur. Ketamine may produce bronchodilation and increased salivary and tracheobronchial secretions.
   Skin
May be harmful if absorbed through the skin.
   Eyes
Temporary loss of vision or blurred vision may be noted.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Benzodiazepines or droperidol and minimization of sensory stimuli may reduce the incidence of psychotomimetic effects of ketamine. Administer oxygen and manage airway as clinically indicated.
   Inhalation
See ingestion.
   Skin
Remove contaminated clothing and wash exposed area thoroughly with soap and water. A physician may need to examine the area if irritation or pain persists.
   Eyes
Irrigate eye for at least 20 minutes with water or saline. If irritation persists, seek medical attention.

Transport.