Lactic acid

  • DL-Lactic acid
  • 2-Hydroxypropanoic acid
  • alpha-Hydroxypropionic acid
  • 1-Hydroxyethanecarboxylic acid
  • Milk acid
  • Biolac
Formula
C3H6O3
Structure
Description
A colorless to yellow odorless syrupy liquid.
Uses
In dyeing baths, as mordant in printing woolen goods, solvent for water in sol dyes (alc-sol induline, nigrosine, spirt-blue, manufacture cheese, confectionery, acidulant in beverages, reducing chromates in mordanting wool, for acidulating worts in brewing, for removing clostridium butyricum in manufacture of yeast, dehairing, plumping & decalcifying hides, solvent for cellulose formate, flux for soft solder, manufacture lactates which are used in food products, in medicine & as solvents, plasticicer catalyst in casting of phenolaldehyde resins.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
50-21-5
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
200-018-0
S 26 36/37/39 45
RTECS
OD2800000
RTECS class
Agricultural Chemical and Pesticide; Tumorigen; Mutagen; Reproductive Effector; Primary Irritant
UN (DOT)
1760
Merck
13,5351
Beilstein/Gmelin
5238667
Beilstein Reference
4-03-00-00633
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-2539
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C3H6O3
Formula mass
90.09
Melting point, °C
16.8
Boiling point, °C
228
Vapor pressure, mmHg
0.08 (25 C)
Critical temperature
383 56.9
Density
1.242 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
Miscible
Viscosity
6.69 cps - aq lactic acid (64.89%) @ 25C
Refractive index
1.439 (20 C)
pKa/pKb
3.90 (pKa)
Partition coefficient, pKow
-0.72
Heat of vaporization
54.0 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion
-1361 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Corrosives area.
E
Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Use with adequate ventilation. Keep container tightly closed. Do not get on skin or in eyes. Do not ingest or inhale. Discard contaminated shoes.
Protection
Eyes: Wear chemical goggles. Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to minimize contact with skin.
Respirators
A respiratory protection program that meets OSHA's 29 CFR 1910.134 and ANSI Z88.2 requirements or European Standard EN 149 must be followed whenever workplace conditions warrant a respirator's use.
Small spills/leaks
Vacuum or sweep up material and place into a suitable disposal container. Avoid runoff into storm sewers and ditches which lead to waterways. Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Avoid generating dusty conditions. Provide ventilation.
Stability
Stable at room temperature in closed containers under normal storage and handling conditions.
Incompatibilities
Moisture, metals, strong oxidizing agents, strong reducing agents, strong bases, nitric acid, iodides.
Decomposition
Carbon monoxide, irritating and toxic fumes and gases, carbon dioxide.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
110
Fire fighting
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. Containers may explode when heated. Extinguishing media: Use agent most appropriate to extinguish fire. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. In case of fire use water spray, dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or appropriate foam.
Fire potential
Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes.
Hazards
Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas.
Combustion products
Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases.
Health
3
 
Flammability
0
 
 
Reactivity
0
 

Health.
Poison_Class
4
Exposure effects
Effects may be delayed.
   Ingestion
May cause severe and permanent damage to the digestive tract. May cause gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Causes gastrointestinal tract burns. May cause perforation of the digestive tract. May cause systemic effects.
   Inhalation
Causes chemical burns to the respiratory tract. Aspiration may lead to pulmonary edema. May cause systemic effects. Can produce delayed pulmonary edema.
   Skin
Causes skin burns. May cause skin rash (in milder cases), and cold and clammy skin with cyanosis or pale color.
   Eyes
Causes eye burns. May cause chemical conjunctivitis and corneal damage.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Get medical aid immediately. Do NOT induce vomiting. If conscious and alert, rinse mouth and drink 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water.
   Inhalation
Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. DO NOT use mouth-to-mouth respiration. If breathing has ceased apply artificial respiration using oxygen and a suitable mechanical device such as a bag and a mask.
   Skin
Get medical aid immediately. Immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse. Destroy contaminated shoes.
   Eyes
Get medical aid immediately. Do NOT allow victim to rub or keep eyes closed. Extensive irrigation is required (at least 30 minutes).

Transport.
UN number
1760
Response guide
Hazard class
8
Packing Group
I; II; III
 
USCG CHRIS Code
LTA
 
Std. Transport #
4932045
 
IMO Chemical Code
18
IMO Pollution Category
D