Maleic acid

  • (Z)-Butenedioic acid
  • cis-1,2-Ethylenedicarboxylic acid
Formula
HOOCCH=CHCOOH
Structure
Description
White crystals or powder with a faint acid odor.
Uses
Chemical intermediate for comonomers in adhesives, fumaric acid, alkylated resins, & synthetic oils.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
110-16-7
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
203-742-5
EC Index Number
607-095-00-3
EC Class
Harmful; Irritant
R 22 36/37/38
S 26 28 37
RTECS
OM9625000
RTECS class
Mutagen; Primary Irritant
UN (DOT)
2215
Merck
13,5726
Beilstein/Gmelin
605762
Beilstein Reference
4-02-00-02199
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-6425
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C4H4O4
Formula mass
116.07
Melting point, °C
130 - 131
Boiling point, °C
256
Decomposition point, °C
135
Vapor pressure, mmHg
5.2E-6 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
4
Saturation Concentration
Very low (less than 100 ppm at 25 C (calculated))
Evaporization number
Practically zero at normal temperatures
Density
1.59 g/cm3
Solubility in water
780 g/L
pKa/pKb
3.15 (pKa)
Partition coefficient, pKow
-0.48
Heat of vaporization
66.0 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion
-1354 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep away from sources of ignition. Keep container closed when not in use. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Corrosives area.
E
Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Minimize dust generation and accumulation. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Keep container tightly closed. Do not ingest or inhale. Use with adequate ventilation. Discard contaminated shoes.
Protection
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to minimize contact with skin.
Respirators
A respiratory protection program that meets OSHA's 29 CFR 1910.134 and ANSI Z88.2 requirements or European Standard EN 149 must be followed whenever workplace conditions warrant a respirator's use.
Small spills/leaks
Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Wear a self contained breathing apparatus and appropriate Personal protection. (See Exposure Controls, Personal Protection section). Sweep up, then place into a suitable container for disposal. Avoid generating dusty conditions. Provide ventilation.
Disposal code
4
Stability
Stable under normal shipping and handling conditions. However, may decompose if heated.
Incompatibilities
Strong oxidizing agents, strong reducing agents, strong bases.
Decomposition
Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
183
Fire fighting
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Extinguishing media: For small fires, use water spray, dry chemical, carbon dioxide or chemical foam.
Fire potential
Slightly flammable. Requires preheating.
Hazards
Irritating smoke containing maleic anhydride may form in fire.
Combustion products
Irritating smoke containing maleic anhydride may form in fire.
Health
3
 
Flammability
0
 
 
Reactivity
1
 

Health.
Poison_Class
4
Exposure effects
Overexposure may cause delayed kidney injury.
   Ingestion
May cause severe and permanent damage to the digestive tract. Causes gastrointestinal tract burns. May cause kidney damage. May be harmful if swallowed.
   Inhalation
May cause severe irritation of the respiratory tract with sore throat, coughing, shortness of breath and delayed lung edema. Causes chemical burns to the respiratory tract.
   Skin
Contact with skin causes irritation and possible burns, especially if the skin is wet or moist. May cause dermatitis. May be harmful if absorbed through the skin.
   Eyes
May result in corneal injury. Contact with eyes may cause severe irritation, and possible eye burns.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Do NOT induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Get medical aid immediately.
   Inhalation
Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. DO NOT use mouth-to-mouth respiration. If breathing has ceased apply artificial respiration using oxygen and a suitable mechanical device such as a bag and a mask.
   Skin
Get medical aid immediately. Immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse. Destroy contaminated shoes.
   Eyes
Flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid immediately. Do NOT allow victim to rub or keep eyes closed. Extensive irrigation is required (at least 30 minutes).

Transport.
UN number
2215
Response guide
Hazard class
8
Packing Group
III
 
USCG CHRIS Code
MLI
 
HS Code
2917 19 90
 
Std. Transport #
4936342