Maleic anhydride

  • cis-Butenedioic anhydride
  • 2,5-Furanedione
  • 2,5-Dihydro-2,5-dioxofuran
  • Toxilic anhydride
  • Malic acid anhydride
  • Furan-2.5-dione
Formula
C4H2O3
Structure
Description
White crystals with a sharp, iritatiing, acrid odor.
Uses
Laboratory reagent, manufacture of alkylated-type of resins, dye intermediates, pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals (maleic hydrazide, malathion). Chemical stabilization of polyvinyl chloride. Antiscorcher.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
108-31-6
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
203-571-6
EC Index Number
607-096-00-9
EC Class
Harmful; Corrosive; Sensitising
R 22 34 42/43
S 22 26 36/37/39 45
RTECS
ON3675000
RTECS class
Tumorigen; Mutagen; Reproductive Effector; Primary Irritant
UN (DOT)
2215
Merck
13,5727
Beilstein/Gmelin
106909
Beilstein Reference
5-17-11-00055
RCRA
U147
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-2370
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C4H2O3
Formula mass
98.06
Melting point, °C
51 - 53
Boiling point, °C
200
Vapor pressure, mmHg
0.16 (20 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
3.38
Saturation Concentration
(0.66% at 63.4 C
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 1.84 mg/m3
Critical temperature
553
Critical pressure
51.4
Density
1.48 g/cm3
Solubility in water
163 g/L (25 C)
Viscosity
1.01 cp (100 C)
Refractive index
1.4476 (64.6 C)
Dipole moment
4.14 D
Partition coefficient, pKow
-0.08
Heat of fusion
13.6 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization
54.85 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion
-1339 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage. Readily sublimes. Decomposes slowly with water forming maleic acid. When dissolved in water it is a strong acid. Molten product should be stored under 70C.
D1B D2A D2B E
Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Use only in a well ventilated area. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Do not ingest or inhale.
Protection
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators
A full-face piece respirator with an organic vapor cartridge and particulate filter (NIOSH type N100 filter) may be worn up to 50 times the exposure limit, or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. If oil particles (e.g. lubricants, cutting fluids, glycerine, etc.) are present, use a NIOSH type R or P particulate filter. For emergencies or instances where the exposure levels are not known, use a full-face piece positive-pressure, air-supplied respirator.
Small spills/leaks
Sweep up or absorb material, then place into a suitable clean, dry, closed container for disposal. Avoid generating dusty conditions.
Disposal code
4
Stability
Stable under normal temperatures and pressures.
Incompatibilities
Alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, amines > 66C. Reacts violently with bases. Contact with strong oxidizers may cause fires and explosions.
Decomposition
Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
103
Autoignition, °C
475
Upper exp. limit, %
7.1
Lower exp. limit, %
1.4
Fire fighting
Wear full protective clothing and NIOSH-approved self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in the pressure demand or other positive pressure mode. Extinguish fire with alcohol foam or carbon dioxide. DO NOT USE dry chemical, multipurpose dry chemical, or loaded stream media because of explosion potential due to reactivity of basic compounds in these extinguishing media.
Fire potential
Slightly flammable. Combustion requires preheating.
Hazards
When heated above 300F in the presence of various materials may generate heat and carbon dioxide. Will explode if confined.
Combustion products
Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases.
Health
3
 
Flammability
1
 
 
Reactivity
1
 

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
TLV: 0.25 ppm; 1.0 mg/m3 (as TWA) (ACGIH 1997). MAK: 0.1 ppm; 0.4 mg/m3; (1996) OSHA PEL: TWA 1 mg/m3 (0.25 ppm) NIOSH REL: TWA 1 mg/m3 (0.25 ppm) NIOSH IDLH: 10 mg/m3
Poison_Class
3
Exposure effects
Repeated inhalation may cause chronic bronchitis of the asthmatic type. Repeated skin contact may lead to dermatitis or sensitization.
   Ingestion
Harmful if swallowed. May cause gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. May cause burns to the gastrointestinal tract.
   Inhalation
May cause asthmatic attacks due to allergic sensitization of the respiratory tract. Causes chemical burns to the respiratory tract. Inhalation of dust causes irritation of the nose and throat, coughing and sneezing.
   Skin
May cause severe irritation and possible burns. Exposure may cause dermatitis and sensitization.
   Eyes
Contact with eyes may cause severe irritation, and possible eye burns. Exposure to high fume concentrations cause photophobia, double vision, and halo vision.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid immediately. Do NOT induce vomiting. If conscious and alert, rinse mouth and drink 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water.
   Inhalation
Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen.
   Skin
Get medical aid immediately. Flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse. Destroy contaminated shoes.
   Eyes
Get medical aid immediately. Do NOT allow victim to rub or keep eyes closed. Extensive irrigation is required (at least 30 minutes).

Transport.
UN number
2215
Response guide
Hazard class
8
Packing Group
III
 
USCG CHRIS Code
MLA
 
11 Organic anhydrides
HS Code
2917 14 00
 
Std. Transport #
4936330
 
IMO Chemical Code
17
IMO Pollution Category
D
IMO Hazard code
S