- cis-Butenedioic anhydride
- Toxilic anhydride
- Malic acid anhydride
White crystals with a sharp, iritatiing, acrid odor.
Laboratory reagent, manufacture of alkylated-type of resins, dye intermediates, pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals (maleic hydrazide, malathion). Chemical stabilization of polyvinyl chloride. Antiscorcher.
Registry Numbers and Inventories.
EC Index Number
Harmful; Corrosive; Sensitising
R 22 34 42/43
S 22 26 36/37/39 45
Tumorigen; Mutagen; Reproductive Effector; Primary Irritant
Swiss Giftliste 1
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Melting point, °C
51 - 53
Boiling point, °C
Vapor pressure, mmHg
0.16 (20 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
(0.66% at 63.4 C
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 1.84 mg/m3
Solubility in water
163 g/L (25 C)
1.01 cp (100 C)
1.4476 (64.6 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
Heat of fusion
Heat of vaporization
Heat of combustion
Hazards and Protection.
Stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage. Readily sublimes. Decomposes slowly with water forming maleic acid. When dissolved in water it is a strong acid. Molten product should be stored under 70C.
D1B D2A D2B E
Wash thoroughly after handling. Use only in a well ventilated area. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Do not ingest or inhale.
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
A full-face piece respirator with an organic vapor cartridge and particulate filter (NIOSH type N100 filter) may be worn up to 50 times the exposure limit, or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. If oil particles (e.g. lubricants, cutting fluids, glycerine, etc.) are present, use a NIOSH type R or P particulate filter. For emergencies or instances where the exposure levels are not known, use a full-face piece positive-pressure, air-supplied respirator.
Sweep up or absorb material, then place into a suitable clean, dry, closed container for disposal. Avoid generating dusty conditions.
Stable under normal temperatures and pressures.
Alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, amines > 66C. Reacts violently with bases. Contact with strong oxidizers may cause fires and explosions.
Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide.
Upper exp. limit, %
Lower exp. limit, %
Wear full protective clothing and NIOSH-approved self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in the pressure demand or other positive pressure mode. Extinguish fire with alcohol foam or carbon dioxide. DO NOT USE dry chemical, multipurpose dry chemical, or loaded stream media because of explosion potential due to reactivity of basic compounds in these extinguishing media.
Slightly flammable. Combustion requires preheating.
When heated above 300F in the presence of various materials may generate heat and carbon dioxide. Will explode if confined.
Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases.
TLV: 0.25 ppm; 1.0 mg/m3 (as TWA) (ACGIH 1997). MAK: 0.1 ppm; 0.4 mg/m3; (1996) OSHA PEL: TWA 1 mg/m3 (0.25 ppm) NIOSH REL: TWA 1 mg/m3 (0.25 ppm) NIOSH IDLH: 10 mg/m3
Repeated inhalation may cause chronic bronchitis of the asthmatic type. Repeated skin contact may lead to dermatitis or sensitization.
Harmful if swallowed. May cause gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. May cause burns to the gastrointestinal tract.
May cause asthmatic attacks due to allergic sensitization of the respiratory tract. Causes chemical burns to the respiratory tract. Inhalation of dust causes irritation of the nose and throat, coughing and sneezing.
May cause severe irritation and possible burns. Exposure may cause dermatitis and sensitization.
Contact with eyes may cause severe irritation, and possible eye burns. Exposure to high fume concentrations cause photophobia, double vision, and halo vision.
Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid immediately. Do NOT induce vomiting. If conscious and alert, rinse mouth and drink 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water.
Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen.
Get medical aid immediately. Flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse. Destroy contaminated shoes.
Get medical aid immediately. Do NOT allow victim to rub or keep eyes closed. Extensive irrigation is required (at least 30 minutes).