Methyl formate

  • Formic acid, methyl ester
  • Methyl methanoate
Formula
HCOOCH3
Structure
Description
Colorless liquid with a pleasant, ethereal odor.
Uses
High-boiling refrigerant for house appliances formerly.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
107-31-3
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
203-481-7
EC Index Number
607-014-00-1
EC Class
Extremely flammable; Harmful; Irritant
R 12 20/22 36/37
S 9 16 24 26 33
RTECS
LQ8925000
RTECS class
Agricultural Chemical and Pesticide
UN (DOT)
1243
Merck
12,6153
Beilstein/Gmelin
1734623
Beilstein Reference
4-02-00-00020
EPA OPP
53701
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-2458
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C2H4O2
Formula mass
60.05
Melting point, °C
-100.4
Boiling point, °C
32
Vapor pressure, mmHg
476 (20 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
2.07
Saturation Concentration
63.2% at 20 C
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 500 mg/m3
Critical temperature
214
Critical pressure
59.3
Density
0.9713 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
300 g/L (20 C)
Viscosity
0.351 cp (20 C)
Surface tension
24.62 g/s2 (20 C)
Refractive index
1.344 (20 C)
Dipole moment
1.77 D
Dielectric constant
8.5 (20 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
0.03
Heat of fusion
7.54 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization
28.6 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion
-1010 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep away from heat, sparks, and flame. Keep away from sources of ignition. Store in a tightly closed container. Keep from contact with oxidizing materials. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances.
B2 D2B
Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Use with adequate ventilation. Ground and bond containers when transferring material. Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Empty containers retain product residue, (liquid and/or vapor), and can be dangerous. Keep container tightly closed. Avoid contact with heat, sparks and flame. Avoid ingestion and inhalation. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose empty containers to heat, sparks or open flames.
Protection
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators
Follow the OSHA respirator regulations found in 29CFR 1910.134 or European Standard EN 149. Always use a NIOSH or European Standard EN 149 approved respirator when necessary.
Small spills/leaks
Absorb spill with inert material, (e.g., dry sand or earth), then place into a chemical waste container. Remove all sources of ignition. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. Water spray may reduce vapor but may not prevent ignition in closed spaces.
Disposal code
1
Stability
Stable under normal temperatures and pressures. However, may react slowly with water forming corrosive acid.
Incompatibilities
Oxidizing agents; bases; acids. Reacts with methanol + sodium methoxide to form an explosive product.
Decomposition
Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, formic acid, methanol.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
-19
Autoignition, °C
449
Upper exp. limit, %
23
Lower exp. limit, %
4.5
Fire fighting
Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped. Use alcohol foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Do not use water on material itself.
Fire potential
Flammable liquid. Mixes with water. Flammable, irritating vapor is produced.
Hazards
Vapor is heavier than air and may travel considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back.
Combustion products
Can emit toxic fumes on exposure to elevated temp.
Health
2
 
Flammability
4
 
 
Reactivity
0
 

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
TLV: 100 ppm; 246 mg/m3 STEL 150 ppm (ACGIH 1996). OSHA PEL: TWA 100 ppm (250 mg/m3) NIOSH REL: TWA 100 ppm (250 mg/m3) ST 150 ppm (375 mg/m3) NIOSH IDLH: 4500 ppm
Poison_Class
3
Exposure effects
The toxological properties of this substance have not been fully investigated.
   Ingestion
Harmful if swallowed. May cause gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.
   Inhalation
Harmful if inhaled. Causes respiratory tract irritation. Irritation may lead to chemical pneumonitis and pulmonary edema. Causes narcotic effects including headache, dizziness, weakness, unconsciousness.
   Skin
Causes severe skin irritation. May be absorbed through the skin.
   Eyes
Get medical aid immediately. Immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid immediately.
   Inhalation
Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen.
   Skin
Get medical aid. Flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes.
   Eyes
Flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid immediately.

Transport.
UN number
1243
Response guide
Hazard class
3
Packing Group
I
 
USCG CHRIS Code
MFM
 
HS Code
2915 13 00
 
Std. Transport #
4908225
 
IMO Pollution Category
D
IMO Hazard code
S