Mustard Gas

  • Bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide
  • 1,1'-Thiobis[2-chloroethane]
  • HD
  • S-Lost
  • Sulfur mustard gas
  • Yellow cross liquid
Formula
(ClCH2CH2)2S
Structure
Description
Mustard gas is a clear amber colored oily liquid with a faint odor of mustard.
Uses
Vesicant in chemical warfare, model compound in biological studies on alkylating agents.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
505-60-2
RTECS
WQ0900000
RTECS class
Tumorigen; Mutagen; Reproductive Effector; Human Data; Primary Irritant
UN (DOT)
2810
Merck
12,6395
Beilstein/Gmelin
1733595
Beilstein Reference
4-01-00-01407
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-1526
Canada DSL/NDSL
NDSL
US TSCA
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C4H8Cl2S
Formula mass
159.08
Melting point, °C
0
Boiling point, °C
215
Vapor pressure, mmHg
0.072 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
5.4
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 1.30X10-3 mg/L
Density
1.285 g/cm3 (15 C)
Solubility in water
Insoluble
Viscosity
105.53 cp (15 C)
Surface tension
42.5 g/s2 (25 C)
Refractive index
1.5278 (15 C)
Heat of fusion
16.6 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization
53.28 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep in a cool, dry, dark location in a tightly sealed container or cylinder. Keep away from incompatible materials, ignition sources and untrained individuals. Secure and label area. Protect containers/cylinders from physical damage.
Handling
All chemicals should be considered hazardous. Avoid direct physical contact. Use appropriate, approved safety equipment. Untrained individuals should not handle this chemical or its container. Handling should occur in a chemical fume hood.
Protection
Wear rubber gloves, overalls. Wear positive pressure self contained breathing apparatus. Wear appropriate chemical protective clothing.
Respirators
Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA).
Small spills/leaks
Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard. Use water spray to knock-down vapors.
Stability
Hydrolyzed in aqueous solution (half-life: 5 min at 37 C).
Incompatibilities
Incompatible with bleaching powder Reacts violently with oxidizing materials Reacts with water or steam to produce toxic and corrosive fumes.
Decomposition
Dangerous when heated to decomposition. Emits highly toxic fumes of sulfur oxides and hydrogen chloride.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
105
Fire fighting
Protective clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus required in presence of mustard gas.Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible.Extinguish with water, foam, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide.
Fire potential
Slightly flammable.
Hazards
Can be ignited by large explosive charge. When heated to decomposition, emits highly toxic fumes of oxides of sulfur and chlorine containing compounds. Reacts with water or steam to produce toxic and corrosive fumes. Containers may rupture violently in a fire. Incompatible with bleaching powder. Reacts violently with oxidizing materials. Reacts with water or steam to produce toxic and corrosive fumes. Unstable, hydrolyzed in aqueous solution. Avoid high heat; contact with acid or acid fumes.
Combustion products
Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases.

Health.
Carcinogin
I-1, N-1, CP65
Poison_Class
1
Exposure effects
Dyspnea and paroxysmal cough are common. Fever may occur. Dizziness, malaise, anorexia, lethargy can occur after acute exposure. Intellectual dullness is common. Probable human teratogen.
   Ingestion
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and epigastric pain can be caused either by ingestion or systemic absorption.
   Inhalation
Irritation or ulceration of the respiratory tract can occur from inhalation; lesions may be fatal. Respiratory impairment may be delayed and severe. Pulmonary edema may occur.
   Skin
Severe irritation was produced from doses as low as 65 mcg in humans. The first effect on skin is redness, similar to a sunburn.
   Eyes
See Inhalation.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Seek medical assistance.
   Inhalation
Move victim to fresh air. Apply artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; induce artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult.
   Skin
Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. Immediately flush with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin.
   Eyes
Irrigate thoroughly with water and neutralize with a 2.5 Per cent solution of sodium thiosulfate. Treat systematic effects as outlined in the inhalation exposure section.

Transport.
UN number
2810
Response guide
Hazard class
6.1
PRTC
T
Packing Group
I; II; III
 
USCG CHRIS Code
MDG
 
Std. Transport #
4920525