Colorless to light yellow liquid, aromatic, aniline-like odor.
Manufacture dyes and other organic chemicals.
Registry Numbers and Inventories.
EC Index Number
Toxic; Danger of cumulative effects; Dangerous for the Environment
R 23/24/25 33 50
S 28 36/37 45 61
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Melting point, °C
Boiling point, °C
Vapor pressure, mmHg
1316 ppm (0.1%) at 41 C (calculated)
Solubility in water
3.32 cp (25 C)
1.56293 (15 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
Heat of vaporization
Heat of combustion
Hazards and Protection.
Keep away from sources of ignition. Do not store in direct sunlight. Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances.
Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Use only in a well ventilated area. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Empty containers retain product residue, (liquid and/or vapor), and can be dangerous. Avoid contact with heat, sparks and flame. Use only in a chemical fume hood. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose empty containers to heat, sparks or open flames.
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Follow the OSHA respirator regulations found in 29CFR 1910.134 or European Standard EN 149. Always use a NIOSH or European Standard EN 149 approved respirator when necessary.
Absorb spill with inert material, (e.g., dry sand or earth), then place into a chemical waste container. Avoid runoff into storm sewers and ditches which lead to waterways. Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Remove all sources of ignition. Use a spark-proof tool. Provide ventilation.
Stable under normal temperatures and pressures. Substance undergoes color change upon exposure to light and air.
Strong oxidizing agents - strong acids - air - light.
Nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, irritating and toxic fumes and gases, carbon dioxide.
Upper exp. limit, %
Lower exp. limit, %
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Combustible Liquid. To extinguish fire, use water, dry chemical, chemical foam, or alcohol-resistant foam. Use water spray to cool fire-exposed containers. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out.
Flammable when exposed to heat or flame.
When heated, vapors may form explosive mixtures with air: indoors, outdoors, and sewers explosion hazards.
Toxic oxides of nitrogen and flammable vapors may form in fire.
TLV: 2 ppm; 8.8 mg/m3 (as TWA) (skin) (ACGIH 1994-1995). NIOSH REL: See Appendix D
Chronic inhalation may cause effects similar to those of acute inhalation. May cause kidney injury. Absorption into the body leads to the formation of methemoglobin which in sufficient concentrations causes cyanosis. May cause anemia and other blood cell abnormalities. Contact with the skin may cause cutaneous lesions.
Harmful if swallowed. May cause irritation of the digestive tract. May cause effects similar to those for inhalation exposure. Methemoglobinemia is characterized by dizziness, drowsiness, headache, breath shortness, cyanosis with bluish skin, rapid heart rate and chocolate-brown colored blood. Overexposure may cause methemoglobinemia.
Causes cyanosis, characterized by bluish-colored skin. May cause anoxia, characterized by weakness, headache, dizziness, confusion, cyanosis, weak and irregular heart beat, collapse, unconsciousness, convulsions, coma and death. May cause methemoglobinemia, cyanosis, convulsions, tachycardia, dyspnea, and death. Methemoglobinemia is characterized by dizziness, drowsiness, headache, breath shortness, cyanosis with bluish skin, rapid heart rate and chocolate-brown blood.
Causes skin irritation. May be absorbed through the skin. Causes symptoms similar to those of inhalation. Excessive drying of the skin may result form repeated or prolonged contact.
Causes severe eye irritation. May cause severe eye burns.
Do NOT induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Get medical aid immediately.
Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. DO NOT use mouth-to-mouth respiration. If breathing has ceased apply artificial respiration using oxygen and a suitable mechanical device such as a bag and a mask.
Get medical aid. Immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse.
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid.