Nitrobenzene

  • Nitrobenzol
  • Oil of mirbane
  • Essence of mirbane
Formula
C6H5NO2
Structure
Description
Pale yellow to brown, oily liquid with an almond odor.
Uses
Manufacture of aniline, solvent for cellulose ethers, modifying esterification of cellulose acetate, ingredient of metal polishes, manufacture of benzidine, quinoline, azobenzene, etc.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
98-95-3
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
202-716-0
EC Index Number
609-003-00-7
EC Class
Carcinogenic Category 3; Toxic for reproduction Category 3; Toxic; Dangerous for the Environment
R 23/24/25 40 48/23/24 51/53 62
S 28 36/37 45 61
RTECS
DA6475000
RTECS class
Agricultural Chemical and Pesticide; Tumorigen; Mutagen; Reproductive Effector; Human Data; Primary Irritant
UN (DOT)
1662
Merck
12,6685
Beilstein/Gmelin
507540
Beilstein Reference
4-05-00-00708
RCRA
U169
EPA OPP
56501
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-2055
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C6H5NO2
Formula mass
123.11
Melting point, °C
5.7
Boiling point, °C
210.8
Vapor pressure, mmHg
0.3 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
4.3
Saturation Concentration
0.02% (20 C)
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 1.90 ppm
Critical temperature
836
Critical pressure
0.48
Density
1.2037 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
Insoluble
Viscosity
2.03 cp at 20.00C
Surface tension
43.35 g/s2 at 20 C
Refractive index
1.5529 (20 C)
Dipole moment
4 D (20 C)
Dielectric constant
34.8 (20 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
1.85
Heat of fusion
11.58 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization
48.06 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion
-2950 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep away from sources of ignition. Do not store in direct sunlight. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances.
B3 D1A D2A
Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Use with adequate ventilation. Ground and bond containers when transferring material. Use spark-proof tools and explosion proof equipment. Empty containers retain product residue, (liquid and/or vapor), and can be dangerous. Keep container tightly closed. Do not get on skin or in eyes. Do not ingest or inhale. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose empty containers to heat, sparks or open flames.
Protection
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators
A half-face organic vapor respirator may be worn for up to ten times the exposure limit or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. A full-face piece organic vapor respirator may be worn up to 50 times the exposure limit or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. For emergencies or instances where the exposure levels are not known, use a full-face piece positive-pressure, air-supplied respirator.
Small spills/leaks
Absorb spill with inert material, (e.g., dry sand or earth), then place into a chemical waste container. Wear a self contained breathing apparatus and appropriate Personal protection. (See Exposure Controls, Personal Protection section). Remove all sources of ignition.
Disposal code
9
Stability
Stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage. Due to low electric conductivity, the substance can generate electrostatic charges as a result of flow, agitation, etc.
Incompatibilities
Reducing agents, oxidizing agents, aluminum chloride, aniline plus glycerine, nitric acid, nitrogen tetraoxide, silver perchlorate, potassium, potassium/sodium alloys, aromatic nitrogen compounds, sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid, tin, and zinc.
Decomposition
Nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
88
Autoignition, °C
480
Upper exp. limit, %
40
Lower exp. limit, %
1.8
Fire fighting
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. To extinguish fire, use water, dry chemical, chemical foam, or alcohol-resistant foam. Use water spray to blanket fire, cool fire exposed containers, and to flush non-ignited spills or vapors away from fire.
Fire potential
Moderately flammable. Combustion with moderate heating.
Hazards
Moderate explosion hazard when exposed to heat or flame. Reacts violently with nitric acid, aluminum trichloride plus phenol, aniline plus glycerine, silver perchlorate and nitrogen tetroxide. Avoid aluminum trichloride; aniline; gycerol; sulfuric acid; oxidants; phosphorus pentachloride; potassium; potassium hydroxide. Avoid sunlight, physical damage to container, freezing, and intense heat.
Combustion products
Combustion by-products include oxides of nitrogen.
Health
3
 
Flammability
2
 
 
Reactivity
1
 

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
TLV: 1 ppm; 5 mg/m3 skin (ACGIH 1992-1993). PDK: 3 mg/m3 (USSR 1986). OSHA PEL: TWA 1 ppm (5 mg/m3) skin NIOSH REL: TWA 1 ppm (5 mg/m3) skin NIOSH IDLH: 200 ppm
Carcinogin
G-A3, I-2B, CP65
Poison_Class
3
Exposure effects
Repeated or prolonged exposure through any route may cause damage to the central nervous system, liver, spleen, kidneys, and bone marrow. May also cause weight loss, anemia, jaundice, hemolysis, weakness, and irritability
   Ingestion
May cause headache, shallow respiration, dizziness, vomiting, weakness, and blood pressure fall. Forms methemoglobin in the blood, reducing oxygen transport and producing cyanosis, and anemia. Convulsions, coma and death may follow. Symptoms may be delayed from 1 to 4 hours, and workers developing fatal cases of methemoglobinemia may not immediately feel sick. Because of bitter almond odor, cyanide poisoning may be suspected, but cyanide acts much faster. Poisoning closely resembles that due to aniline. Estimated lethal dose 1 to 5 grams.
   Inhalation
May be absorbed through inhalation of vapors. Symptoms parallel those following ingestion exposure.
   Skin
May be irritating and sensitizing to the skin. May be rapidly absorbed through the skin, with symptoms paralleling those following ingestion exposure.
   Eyes
Vapors cause eye irritation. Splashes cause severe irritation, possible corneal burns and eye damage.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid immediately. Induce vomiting by giving one teaspoon of Syrup of Ipecac.
   Inhalation
Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen.
   Skin
Get medical aid immediately. Flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes.
   Eyes
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid immediately.

Transport.
UN number
1662
Response guide
Hazard class
6.1
Packing Group
II
 
USCG CHRIS Code
NTB
 
42 Nitrocompounds
HS Code
2904 20 00
 
Std. Transport #
4921455
 
IMO Chemical Code
17
IMO Pollution Category
B
IMO Hazard code
S/P