Nitromethane

  • Nitrocarbol
Formula
CH3NO2
Structure
Description
Colorless, oily liquid with a mild, fruity odor.
Uses
Rocket fuel, solvent for zein, used in coating industry.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
75-52-5
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
200-876-6
EC Index Number
609-036-00-7
EC Class
Heating may cause an explosion, flammable; Harmful
R 5 10 22
RTECS
PA9800000
RTECS class
Tumorigen
UN (DOT)
1261
Merck
12,6708
Beilstein/Gmelin
1698205
Beilstein Reference
4-01-00-00100
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-2056
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
CH3NO2
Formula mass
61.04
Melting point, °C
-29
Boiling point, °C
101.2
Decomposition point, °C
160
Vapor pressure, mmHg
28 (20 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
2.1
Saturation Concentration
36000 ppm (3.6%) at 20 C; 47000 ppm (4.7%) at 25 C (calculated)
Evaporization number
1.39 (n-butyl acetate = 1)
Odor Threshold Odor threshold Less than 200 ppm
Critical temperature
315
Critical pressure
62.3
Density
1.138 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
100 g/L
Viscosity
0.647 cp @ 20C
Surface tension
37.0 g/s2 @ 20 C
Refractive index
1.38056 (20 C)
Dipole moment
3.1 D (20 C)
Dielectric constant
35.9 (30 C)
Heat of fusion
9.71 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization
38.4 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion
-711 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep away from sources of ignition. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Flammables-area.
B2 D2A F
Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Use with adequate ventilation. Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Empty containers retain product residue, (liquid and/or vapor), and can be dangerous. Avoid ingestion and inhalation. Do not ingest or inhale. Avoid mechanical shock and friction. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose empty containers to heat, sparks or open flames.
Protection
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves and clothing to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to minimize contact with skin.
Respirators
Follow the OSHA respirator regulations found in 29CFR 1910.134 or European Standard EN 149. Always use a NIOSH or European Standard EN 149 approved respirator when necessary.
Small spills/leaks
Avoid runoff into storm sewers and ditches which lead to waterways. Wash area with soap and water. Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Wear a self contained breathing apparatus and appropriate Personal protection. (See Exposure Controls, Personal Protection section). Scoop up with a nonsparking tool, then place into a suitable container for disposal. Remove all sources of ignition. Absorb spill using an absorbent, non-combustible material such as earth, sand, or vermiculite. Provide ventilation.
Stability
Substance is shock sensitive and thermally unstable. Substance forms an explosive sodium salt which bursts into flame on contact with water.
Incompatibilities
Acetone, alkyl metal halides, aluminum chloride + organic matter, aniline, calcium hydroxide, calcium hypochlorite, diaminoethane, formaldehyde, formic acid, hexamethylbenzene, hydrocarbons, hydroxides, inorganic bases, lithium perchlorate, methylamine, morpholine, nitric acid, organic amines, phosphoric acid, potassium hydroxide, silver nitrate (aqueous), sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid.
Decomposition
Nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
35.6
Autoignition, °C
418
Upper exp. limit, %
63.0
Lower exp. limit, %
7.3
Fire fighting
Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Solid streams of water may be ineffective. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Use alcohol foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide.
Fire potential
Dangerous, when exposed to heat; oxidizers or flame
Hazards
Containers may explode
Combustion products
Combustion may produce oxides of nitrogen and other irritants and toxic gases.
Health
2
 
Flammability
3
 
 
Reactivity
4
 

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
TLV: 20 ppm; 50 mg/m3 (ACGIH 1996). OSHA PEL: TWA 100 ppm (250 mg/m3) NIOSH REL: See Appendix D NIOSH IDLH: 750 ppm
Carcinogin
G-A3, I-2B, CP65
Poison_Class
4
Exposure effects
Possible cancer hazard based on tests with laboratory animals. Prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause dermatitis. May cause methemoglobinemia, which is characterized by chocolate-brown colored blood, headache, weakness, dizziness, breath shortness, cyanosis, rapid heart rate, unconsciousness and possible death.
   Ingestion
May cause central nervous system depression, kidney damage, and liver damage. May cause gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Methemoglobinemia is characterized by dizziness, drowsiness, headache, breath shortness, cyanosis with bluish skin, rapid heart rate and chocolate-brown colored blood. Overexposure may cause methemoglobinemia. May be harmful if swallowed.
   Inhalation
May cause respiratory tract irritation. May cause effects similar to those described for ingestion. May cause pulmonary edema and severe respiratory disturbances. Methemoglobinemia is characterized by dizziness, drowsiness, headache, breath shortness, cyanosis with bluish skin, rapid heart rate and chocolate-brown blood.
   Skin
Exposure may cause irritation characterized by redness, dryness, and inflammation.
   Eyes
May cause eye irritation. Vapors may cause eye irritation.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Do NOT induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Possible aspiration hazard. Get medical aid immediately.
   Inhalation
Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical aid. DO NOT use mouth-to-mouth respiration.
   Skin
Flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Get medical aid if irritation develops or persists. Wash clothing before reuse.
   Eyes
Flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid. Do NOT allow victim to rub or keep eyes closed.

Transport.
UN number
1261
Response guide
Hazard class
3
Packing Group
II
 
USCG CHRIS Code
NMT
 
42 Nitrocompounds
HS Code
2904 20 00
 
Std. Transport #
4907030
 
IMO Pollution Category
C