Exists as either a yellow solid crystal or liquid.
Manufacture of dyes, toluidines, nitrobenzoic acids.
Registry Numbers and Inventories.
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Melting point, °C
Boiling point, °C
Vapor density (air=1)
Solubility in water
Partition coefficient, pKow
Hazards and Protection.
Store in cool, dry, well-ventilated location. Separate from alkalies, acids, oxidizing materials, and reducing agents.
All chemicals should be considered hazardous. Avoid direct physical contact. Use appropriate, approved safety equipment. Untrained individuals should not handle this chemical or its container. Handling should occur in a chemical fume hood.
Wear appropriate chemical protective clothing. Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus when fighting fires involving this material.
Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus.
Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard. Apply water spray or mist to knock down vapors. Combustion products include corrosive or toxic vapors. Land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material. Cover solids with a plastic sheet to prevent dissolving in rain or fire fighting water. Water spill: Use natural barriers or oil spill control booms to limit spill travel. Remove trapped material with suction hoses.
Heat contributes to instability.
Nitrotoluene will attack some forms of plastics, rubber, and coatings. Contact with strong oxidizers or sulfuric acid may cause fires and explosions.
Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Use foam, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide.
May burn but does not ignite readily.
Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may pollute waterways. Substance may be transported in a molten form.
Toxic gases and vapors (such as oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide) may be released in a fire involving nitrotoluene.
OSHA: PEL (8 h TWA): 5 ppm
Rapid heart rate, rapid breathing, abnormally low blood pressure, and respiratory depression may occur. Headache, dizziness, lethargy, and coma are possible. Nitrobenzene is a possible animal teratogen.
Nausea and vomiting may occur. Urine and vomitus may have the odor of bitter almonds.
Respiratory failure may occur.
Persistent cyanosis in spite of oxygen therapy usually occurs when the methemoglobin level is greater than 15 percent.
Brown discoloration of the vessels of the fundus and the mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelid and the exposed surface of the eyeball may occur. Changes in visual acuity, decreased visual fields, irritation and a diminishing vision within the visual field may occur.
Seek medical assistance.
Move patient to fresh air. Monitor for respiratory distress. If cough or difficulty breathing develops, evaluate for respiratory tract irritation, bronchitis, or pneumonitis. Administer oxygen and assist ventilation as required. Treat bronchospasm with beta2 agonist and corticosteroid aerosols.
Remove contaminated clothing and wash exposed area thoroughly with soap and water. A physician should examine the area if irritation or pain persists. If patient is cyanotic and symptomatic, methemoglobinemia is likely and methylene blue therapy should be initiated.
Irrigate exposed eyes with copious amounts of tepid water for at least 15 minutes. If irritation, pain, swelling, lacrimation, or photophobia persist, the patient should be seen in a health care facility.