Colorless liquid with an ammonia-like or fishy odor.
Intermediate for pharmaceuticals, dyestuffs, synthetic tanning agents, rubber chemicals, insecticides, & emulsifying agents.
Registry Numbers and Inventories.
EC Index Number
Highly flammable; Harmful; Corrosive
R 11 20/21/22 35
S 3 16 26 29 36/37/39 45
Tumorigen; Mutagen; Primary Irritant
Swiss Giftliste 1
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Melting point, °C
Boiling point, °C
Vapor pressure, mmHg
96 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
9.5 to 10.8 % at 20 C.
7.3 (butyl acetate = 1)
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 1 ppm
0.741 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
0.681 cp (25 C)
23.81 g/s2 (20 C)
1.401 (20 C)
1.3 D (25 C)
4.92 (20 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
Heat of vaporization
Heat of combustion
Hazards and Protection.
Keep away from heat, sparks, and flame. Keep away from sources of ignition. Do not store in direct sunlight. Keep container closed when not in use. Keep from contact with oxidizing materials. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Keep away from organic halogens. Flammables-area. Keep away from acids.
B2 D1B E
Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Use with adequate ventilation. Ground and bond containers when transferring material. Use spark-proof tools and explosion proof equipment. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Empty containers retain product residue, (liquid and/or vapor), and can be dangerous. Take precautionary measures against static discharges. Keep container tightly closed. Avoid contact with heat, sparks and flame. Do not ingest or inhale. Use with adequate ventilation. Discard contaminated shoes. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose empty containers to heat, sparks or open flames.
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
A respiratory protection program that meets OSHA's 29 CFR 1910.134 and ANSI Z88.2 requirements or European Standard EN 149 must be followed whenever workplace conditions warrant a respirator's use. Follow the OSHA respirator regulations found in 29CFR 1910.134 or European Standard EN 149. Always use a NIOSH or European Standard EN 149 approved respirator when necessary.
Absorb spill with inert material, (e.g., dry sand or earth), then place into a chemical waste container. Use water spray to dilute spill to a non-flammable mixture. Avoid runoff into storm sewers and ditches which lead to waterways. Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Wear a self contained breathing apparatus and appropriate Personal protection. (See Exposure Controls, Personal Protection section). Scoop up with a nonsparking tool, then place into a suitable container for disposal. Use water spray to disperse the gas/vapor. Remove all sources of ignition. Use a spark-proof tool. Provide ventilation.
Stable at room temperature in closed containers under normal storage and handling conditions. Forms explosive mixtures with air.
Strong oxidizing agents, strong acids, alcohols, organic acids, phenols, vinyl acetate, isocyanates, epichlorohydrin, perchloryl fluoride, organic anhydrides, cresol, aldehydes, ketones, nonoxidizing mineral acids, glycols, caprolactam solution.
Nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, irritating and toxic fumes and gases, carbon dioxide.
Upper exp. limit, %
Lower exp. limit, %
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. Extinguishing media: For small fires, use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, water spray or alcohol-resistant foam. For large fires, use water spray, fog, or alcohol-resistant foam. Use water spray to cool fire-exposed containers.
Very flammable. Combustion imminent.
Vapors may form an explosive mixture with air. Vapors can travel to a source of ignition and flash back. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Will burn if involved in a fire. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Containers may explode in the heat of a fire. Vapors may be heavier than air. They can spread along the ground and collect in low or confined areas. May polymerize explosively when involved in a fire. May accumulate static electrical charges, and may cause ignition of its own vapors. Containers may explode if exposed to fire.
Toxic oxides of nitrogen may form in fire.
TLV: 5 ppm; 15 mg/m3 (ceiling values) (skin) (ACGIH 1997). OSHA PEL: C 5 ppm (15 mg/m3) skin NIOSH REL: C 5 ppm (15 mg/m3) skin NIOSH IDLH: 300 ppm
Headaches may ensue after inhalation of the vapor. CNS effects were seen in animals exposed to the vapor. No data were available to assess the teratogenic potential of this agent. <br>No data were available to assess the potential effects of exposure to this agent during pregnancy or lactation.
Harmful if swallowed. May cause severe and permanent damage to the digestive tract. Causes gastrointestinal tract burns. May cause perforation of the digestive tract. Causes severe pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and shock. May cause burns to the digestive tract. Ingestion of large amounts may cause CNS depression. May cause systemic effects.
May cause irritation of the respiratory tract with burning pain in the nose and throat, coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath and pulmonary edema. Causes chemical burns to the respiratory tract. Aspiration may lead to pulmonary edema. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. May cause systemic effects. May cause burning sensation in the chest.
Harmful if absorbed through the skin. Causes skin burns. May cause deep, penetrating ulcers of the skin. May cause contact dermatitis. May cause cyanosis of the extremities. May cause skin rash (in milder cases), and cold and clammy skin with cyanosis or pale color.
Causes severe eye burns. May result in corneal injury. May cause chemical conjunctivitis and corneal damage.
Do NOT induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid immediately.
Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. DO NOT use mouth-to-mouth respiration. If breathing has ceased apply artificial respiration using oxygen and a suitable mechanical device such as a bag and a mask.
Get medical aid immediately. Immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse. Destroy contaminated shoes.
Get medical aid immediately. Do NOT allow victim to rub or keep eyes closed. Extensive irrigation is required (at least 30 minutes).