n-Pentane

  • Pentane
  • Amyl hydride
Formula
CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3
Structure
Description
Colorless liquid with a gasoline- or petroleum-like odor.
Uses
Component of aerosol propellants, as raw material for prodn of chlorinated pentanes and pentanols.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
109-66-0
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
203-692-4
EC Index Number
601-006-00-1
EC Class
Extremely flammable; Harmful; Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking; Vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness; Dangerous for the Environment
R 12 51/53 65 66 67
S 9 16 29 33 61 62
RTECS
RZ9450000
RTECS class
Drug
UN (DOT)
1265
Merck
12,7255
Beilstein/Gmelin
969132
Beilstein Reference
4-01-00-00303
RCRA
D001
EPA OPP
98001
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-2696
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C5H12
Formula mass
72.15
Melting point, °C
-130
Boiling point, °C
36.1
Vapor pressure, mmHg
512 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
2.5
Saturation Concentration
64.2% at 20 C
Evaporization number
28.6 (butyl acetate = 1)
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 10 ppm
Critical temperature
196.6
Critical pressure
33.3
Density
0.626 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
400 mg/L
Viscosity
0.289 cp @ 0C
Surface tension
16 g/s2
Refractive index
1.35768 (20 C)
Dipole moment
0.007 D
Dielectric constant
1.8 (20 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
3.39
Thermal expansion
0.001/K
Heat of fusion
8.38 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization
28.42 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion
-3539 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep away from heat, sparks, and flame. Keep away from sources of ignition. Store in a tightly closed container. Keep from contact with oxidizing materials. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Bond and ground containers when transferring liquid.-area.
B2
Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Use with adequate ventilation. Ground and bond containers when transferring material. Use spark-proof tools and explosion proof equipment. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Empty containers retain product residue, (liquid and/or vapor), and can be dangerous. Avoid contact with heat, sparks and flame. Do not ingest or inhale. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose empty containers to heat, sparks or open flames.
Protection
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear neoprene gloves, apron, and/or clothing. Wear natural rubber gloves, apron, and/or clothing. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators
Follow the OSHA respirator regulations found in 29CFR 1910.134 or European Standard EN 149. Always use a NIOSH or European Standard EN 149 approved respirator when necessary.
Small spills/leaks
Absorb spill with inert material, (e.g., dry sand or earth), then place into a chemical waste container. Scoop up with a nonsparking tool, then place into a suitable container for disposal. Use water spray to disperse the gas/vapor. Remove all sources of ignition. Use a spark-proof tool. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors.
Stability
Stable at room temperature in closed containers under normal storage and handling conditions.
Incompatibilities
Strong oxidizing agents, coatings, plastics, rubber.
Decomposition
Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of carbon.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
-49
Autoignition, °C
285
Upper exp. limit, %
87.8
Lower exp. limit, %
1.4
Fire fighting
Wear proper protective equipment and self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in positive pressure.Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Solid streams of water may spread fire. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Use foam, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide.
Fire potential
Very flammable, combustion imminent.
Hazards
Containers may explode
Combustion products
Toxic gases and vapors (such as carbon monoxide) may be released in a fire involving pentane.
Health
1
 
Flammability
4
 
 
Reactivity
0
 

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
OSHA PEL: TWA 1000 ppm (2950 mg/m3) NIOSH REL: TWA 120 ppm (350 mg/m3) C 610 ppm (1800 mg/m3) 15-minute NIOSH IDLH: 1500 ppm LEL
Poison_Class
5
Exposure effects
Prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause defatting and dermatitis.
   Ingestion
Aspiration hazard. May cause irritation of the digestive tract. Symptoms may include: headache, excitement, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, stupor, and coma. May cause gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. May cause central nervous system depression, characterized by excitement, followed by headache, dizziness, drowsiness, and nausea. Advanced stages may cause collapse, unconsciousness, coma and possible death due to respiratory failure. Aspiration of material into the lungs may cause chemical pneumonitis, which may be fatal. Ingestion of large amounts may cause CNS depression.
   Inhalation
Inhalation of high concentrations may cause central nervous system effects characterized by headache, dizziness, unconsciousness and coma. May cause respiratory tract irritation. Aspiration may lead to pulmonary edema. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. May cause burning sensation in the chest.
   Skin
Causes skin irritation. May cause irritation and dermatitis. May cause cyanosis of the extremities.
   Eyes
Causes eye irritation. May cause chemical conjunctivitis and corneal damage.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Do NOT induce vomiting. Get medical aid immediately.
   Inhalation
Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen.
   Skin
Flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Get medical aid if irritation develops or persists.
   Eyes
Flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid.

Transport.
UN number
1265
Response guide
Hazard class
3
Packing Group
I; II
 
USCG CHRIS Code
PTA
 
HS Code
2901 10 90
 
Std. Transport #
4908255
 
IMO Chemical Code
17
IMO Pollution Category
C
IMO Hazard code
P