White crystalline solid or light beige powder. Odor of pepper.
It is used primarily as an incapacitating agent, both by military & law enforcement personnel. It can be disseminated in burning grenades & weapon-fired projectiles, as an aerosol from the finely divided solid chemical, or from a solution of the chemical dissolved in methylene chloride or acetone.
Registry Numbers and Inventories.
Tumorigen; Mutagen; Reproductive Effector; Human Data; Primary Irritant
Swiss Giftliste 1
Melting point, °C
95.2 - 95.8
Boiling point, °C
Vapor pressure, mmHg
0.0005 (25 C)
1.389 g/cm3 (25 C)
Solubility in water
Partition coefficient, pKow
Heat of vaporization
Hazards and Protection.
Keep in a cool, dry, dark location in a tightly sealed container or cylinder. Keep away from incompatible materials, ignition sources and untrained individuals. Secure and label area. Protect containers/cylinders from physical damage.
All chemicals should be considered hazardous. Avoid direct physical contact. Use appropriate, approved safety equipment. Untrained individuals should not handle this chemical or its container. Handling should occur in a chemical fume hood.
Wear appropriate protective gloves, clothing and goggles.
Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA).
If a spill of this chemical occurs, FIRST REMOVE ALL SOURCES OF IGNITION, then you should dampen the solid spill material with acetone and transfer the dampened material to a suitable container. Use absorbent paper dampened with acetone to pick up any remaining material. Seal your contaminated clothing and the absorbent paper in a vapor-tight plastic bag for eventual disposal. Solvent wash all contaminated surfaces with acetone followed by washing with a soap and water solution. Do not reenter the contaminated area until the Safety Officer (or other responsible person) has verified that the area has been properly cleaned.
May react with strong oxidizers.
When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of hydrogen chloride, nitrogen oxides and cyanides.
Fires involving this compound should be controlled with a dry chemical, carbon dioxide or Halon extinguisher.
Combustible material: may burn but does not ignite readily.
When heated, vapors may form explosive mixtures with air: indoors, outdoors, and sewers explosion hazards.
Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases.
NIOSH REL: C 0.05 ppm (0.4 mg/m3) [skin] OSHA PEL: TWA 0.05 ppm (0.4 mg/m3) IDLH 2 mg/m3
Agitation and syncope, both attributed to panic, have been reported.
A metallic taste with a burning sensation of the tongue is common. Nausea is common; vomiting occurs occasionally. Epigastric discomfort and burping may occur if tear gas is swallowed.
Cough, rhinorrhea, sneezing, chest tightness, and laryngospasm may occur shortly following exposure due to the irritant effects.
Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. See Inhalation.
DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Corrosive chemicals will destroy the membranes of the mouth, throat, and esophagus and, in addition, have a high risk of being aspirated into the victim's lungs during vomiting which increases the medical problems. If the victim is conscious and not convulsing, give 1 or 2 glasses of water to dilute the chemical and IMMEDIATELY call a hospital or poison control center. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital. If the victim is convulsing or unconscious, do not give anything by mouth, ensure that the victim's airway is open and lay the victim on his/her side with the head lower than the body. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Transport the victim IMMEDIATELY to a hospital.
IMMEDIATELY leave the contaminated area; take deep breaths of fresh air. If symptoms (such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, or burning in the mouth, throat, or chest) develop, call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital. Provide proper respiratory protection to rescuers entering an unknown atmosphere. Whenever possible, Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) should be used.
IMMEDIATELY flood affected skin with water while removing and isolating all contaminated clothing. Gently wash all affected skin areas thoroughly with soap and water. IMMEDIATELY call a hospital or poison control center even if no symptoms (such as redness or irritation) develop. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital for treatment after washing the affected areas.
First check the victim for contact lenses and remove if present. Flush victim's eyes with water or normal saline solution for 20 to 30 minutes while simultaneously calling a hospital or poison control center. Do not put any ointments, oils, or medication in the victim's eyes without specific instructions from a physician. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim after flushing eyes to a hospital even if no symptoms (such as redness or irritation) develop.
I; II; III