o-Chlorobenzylidene malononitrile

  • [(2-Chlorophenyl)methylene]propanedinitrile
  • o-Chlorobenzalmalononitrile
  • [(2-Chlorophenyl)methylene]malononitrile
Formula
C10H5ClN2
Structure
Description
White crystalline solid or light beige powder. Odor of pepper.
Uses
It is used primarily as an incapacitating agent, both by military & law enforcement personnel. It can be disseminated in burning grenades & weapon-fired projectiles, as an aerosol from the finely divided solid chemical, or from a solution of the chemical dissolved in methylene chloride or acetone.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
2698-41-1
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
220-278-9
RTECS
OO3675000
RTECS class
Tumorigen; Mutagen; Reproductive Effector; Human Data; Primary Irritant
UN (DOT)
2810
Merck
12,2178
Beilstein/Gmelin
1866635
Beilstein Reference
2-09-00-00641
RCRA
U149
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-8001
Canada DSL/NDSL
NDSL
US TSCA
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C10H5ClN2
Formula mass
188.62
Melting point, °C
95.2 - 95.8
Boiling point, °C
310
Vapor pressure, mmHg
0.0005 (25 C)
Density
1.389 g/cm3 (25 C)
Solubility in water
Insoluble
Partition coefficient, pKow
2.67
Heat of vaporization
55.4 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep in a cool, dry, dark location in a tightly sealed container or cylinder. Keep away from incompatible materials, ignition sources and untrained individuals. Secure and label area. Protect containers/cylinders from physical damage.
Handling
All chemicals should be considered hazardous. Avoid direct physical contact. Use appropriate, approved safety equipment. Untrained individuals should not handle this chemical or its container. Handling should occur in a chemical fume hood.
Protection
Wear appropriate protective gloves, clothing and goggles.
Respirators
Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA).
Small spills/leaks
If a spill of this chemical occurs, FIRST REMOVE ALL SOURCES OF IGNITION, then you should dampen the solid spill material with acetone and transfer the dampened material to a suitable container. Use absorbent paper dampened with acetone to pick up any remaining material. Seal your contaminated clothing and the absorbent paper in a vapor-tight plastic bag for eventual disposal. Solvent wash all contaminated surfaces with acetone followed by washing with a soap and water solution. Do not reenter the contaminated area until the Safety Officer (or other responsible person) has verified that the area has been properly cleaned.
Stability
No data.
Incompatibilities
May react with strong oxidizers.
Decomposition
When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of hydrogen chloride, nitrogen oxides and cyanides.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
148
Fire fighting
Fires involving this compound should be controlled with a dry chemical, carbon dioxide or Halon extinguisher.
Fire potential
Combustible material: may burn but does not ignite readily.
Hazards
When heated, vapors may form explosive mixtures with air: indoors, outdoors, and sewers explosion hazards.
Combustion products
Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases.

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
NIOSH REL: C 0.05 ppm (0.4 mg/m3) [skin] OSHA PEL: TWA 0.05 ppm (0.4 mg/m3) IDLH 2 mg/m3
Poison_Class
2
Exposure effects
Agitation and syncope, both attributed to panic, have been reported.
   Ingestion
A metallic taste with a burning sensation of the tongue is common. Nausea is common; vomiting occurs occasionally. Epigastric discomfort and burping may occur if tear gas is swallowed.
   Inhalation
Cough, rhinorrhea, sneezing, chest tightness, and laryngospasm may occur shortly following exposure due to the irritant effects.
   Skin
Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. See Inhalation.
   Eyes
See Inhalation.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Corrosive chemicals will destroy the membranes of the mouth, throat, and esophagus and, in addition, have a high risk of being aspirated into the victim's lungs during vomiting which increases the medical problems. If the victim is conscious and not convulsing, give 1 or 2 glasses of water to dilute the chemical and IMMEDIATELY call a hospital or poison control center. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital. If the victim is convulsing or unconscious, do not give anything by mouth, ensure that the victim's airway is open and lay the victim on his/her side with the head lower than the body. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Transport the victim IMMEDIATELY to a hospital.
   Inhalation
IMMEDIATELY leave the contaminated area; take deep breaths of fresh air. If symptoms (such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, or burning in the mouth, throat, or chest) develop, call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital. Provide proper respiratory protection to rescuers entering an unknown atmosphere. Whenever possible, Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) should be used.
   Skin
IMMEDIATELY flood affected skin with water while removing and isolating all contaminated clothing. Gently wash all affected skin areas thoroughly with soap and water. IMMEDIATELY call a hospital or poison control center even if no symptoms (such as redness or irritation) develop. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital for treatment after washing the affected areas.
   Eyes
First check the victim for contact lenses and remove if present. Flush victim's eyes with water or normal saline solution for 20 to 30 minutes while simultaneously calling a hospital or poison control center. Do not put any ointments, oils, or medication in the victim's eyes without specific instructions from a physician. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim after flushing eyes to a hospital even if no symptoms (such as redness or irritation) develop.

Transport.
UN number
2810
Response guide
Hazard class
6.1
Packing Group
I; II; III