o-Dinitrobenzene

  • 1,2-Dinitrobenzene
  • 1,2-Dinitrobenzol
  • 1,2-DNB
Formula
C6H4N2O4
Structure
Description
Colorless to yellow solid.
Uses
Used for the synthesis of dyestuffs, dyestuff intermediates, explosives, and celluloid production.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
528-29-0
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
208-431-8
EC Index Number
609-004-00-2
EC Class
Very toxic; Danger of cumulative effects; Dangerous for the Environment
R 26/27/28 33 50/53
S 28.1 36/37 45 60 61
RTECS
CZ7450000
RTECS class
Mutagen
UN (DOT)
1597
Beilstein/Gmelin
642224
Beilstein Reference
4-05-00-00738
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-1569
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C6H4N2O4
Formula mass
168.11
Melting point, °C
112 - 115
Boiling point, °C
297
Vapor pressure, mmHg
0.0006 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
5.79
Density
1.31 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
0.5 g/L
Surface tension
38.4 g/s2 (126 C)
Refractive index
1.565 (17 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
1.58
Heat of fusion
22.7 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization
53.9 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion
-2945 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Store at only in permanent magazine. Keep away from initiator explosives and protected from physical damage - separated from oxidizing materials and source of heat.
Handling
All chemicals should be considered hazardous. Avoid direct physical contact. Use appropriate, approved safety equipment. Untrained individuals should not handle this chemical or its container. Handling should occur in a chemical fume hood.
Protection
Employees should be provided with and required to use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (eight-inch minimum), and other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent skin contact with dinitrobenzene or liquids containing dinitrobenzene. Wear appropriate eye protection and protective clothing to prevent skin and eye contact. Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure.
Respirators
Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode.
Small spills/leaks
Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Cover with plastic sheet to prevent spreading. Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. DO NOT GET WATER INSIDE CONTAINERS.
Disposal code
9
Stability
Highly reactive.
Incompatibilities
May react vigorously with oxidizing materials.
Decomposition
On combustion, forms toxic gases and fumes including nitrogen oxides.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
150
Upper exp. limit, %
9.8
Lower exp. limit, %
1.8
Fire fighting
Fire Extinguishing Agents: Water, CO 2 , or dry chemical.
Fire potential
Slightly flammable.
Hazards
Containers may explode when heated.
Combustion products
Emits highly toxic fumes of oxides of nitrogen.
Health
3
 
Flammability
1
 
 
Reactivity
4
 

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
TLV: 0.15 ppm; 1.0 mg/m3 (as TWA) (skin) (ACGIH 1996). OSHA PEL: TWA 1 mg/m3 skin NIOSH REL: TWA 1 mg/m3 skin NIOSH IDLH: 50 mg/m3
Poison_Class
2
Exposure effects
Rapid heart rate, rapid breathing, abnormally low blood pressure, and respiratory depression may occur. Headache, dizziness, lethargy, and coma are possible. Nitrobenzene is a possible animal teratogen.
   Ingestion
Nausea and vomiting may occur. Urine and vomitus may have the odor of bitter almonds.
   Inhalation
Respiratory failure may occur.
   Skin
Persistent cyanosis in spite of oxygen therapy usually occurs when the methemoglobin level is greater than 15 percent.
   Eyes
Brown discoloration of the vessels of the fundus and the mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelid and the exposed surface of the eyeball may occur. Changes in visual acuity, decreased visual fields, irritation and a diminishing vision within the visual field may occur.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Seek medical assistance.
   Inhalation
Move patient to fresh air. Monitor for respiratory distress. If cough or difficulty breathing develops, evaluate for respiratory tract irritation, bronchitis, or pneumonitis. Administer oxygen and assist ventilation as required. Treat bronchospasm with beta2 agonist and corticosteroid aerosols.
   Skin
Remove contaminated clothing and wash exposed area thoroughly with soap and water. A physician should examine the area if irritation or pain persists. If patient is cyanotic and symptomatic, methemoglobinemia is likely and methylene blue therapy should be initiated.
   Eyes
Irrigate exposed eyes with copious amounts of tepid water for at least 15 minutes. If irritation, pain, swelling, lacrimation, or photophobia persist, the patient should be seen in a health care facility.

Transport.
UN number
1597
Response guide
Hazard class
6.1
Packing Group
II
 
USCG CHRIS Code
DNO
 
HS Code
2904 20 00