Light yellow liquid, becomes reddish-brown on exposure to air and light, aromatic aniline-like odor.
Printing textiles blue-black, making various colors fast to acids.
Registry Numbers and Inventories.
EC Index Number
Carcinogenic Category 2; Toxic; Irritant; Dangerous for the Environment
R 45 23/25 36 50
S 53 45 61
Tumorigen; Mutagen; Reproductive Effector; Human Data; Primary Irritant
Swiss Giftliste 1
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Melting point, °C
Boiling point, °C
198 - 201
Vapor pressure, mmHg
0.33 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
395 ppm (0.03 ppm) at 20 C (calculated)
0.998 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
0.339 cp (25 C)
1.5725 (20 C)
Partition coefficient, pKow
Heat of vaporization
Heat of combustion
Hazards and Protection.
Keep away from heat, sparks, and flame. Keep away from sources of ignition. Do not store in direct sunlight. Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Do not store in metal containers. Store protected from light and air. Do not get water inside containers. Material darkens on exposure to air.
Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Keep container tightly closed. Avoid contact with heat, sparks and flame. Do not ingest or inhale. Use only in a chemical fume hood. Avoid contact with air and sunlight. Discard contaminated shoes.
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
A respiratory protection program that meets OSHA's 29 CFR 1910.134 and ANSI Z88.2 requirements or European Standard EN 149 must be followed whenever workplace conditions warrant a respirator's use.
Absorb spill with inert material, (e.g., dry sand or earth), then place into a chemical waste container. Avoid runoff into storm sewers and ditches which lead to waterways. Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Remove all sources of ignition. Provide ventilation. Do not get water inside containers.
Stable under normal temperatures and pressures. Substance undergoes color change upon exposure to light and air.
Strong oxidizing agents, strong acids, bases, nitric acid.
Nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, irritating and toxic fumes and gases, carbon dioxide, toluidine vapors.
Upper exp. limit, %
Lower exp. limit, %
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Combustible Liquid. Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated. Extinguishing media: Do NOT get water inside containers. For small fires, use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or water spray. For large fires, use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, alcohol-resistant foam, or water spray. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out.
Moderately flammable. Flammable with moderate heating.
When heated, vapors may form explosive mixtures with air: indoors, outdoors, and sewers explosion hazards.
Toxic oxides of nitrogen and flammable vapors may form in fire.
TLV: 2 ppm; 8.8 mg/m3 (as TWA) A2 (skin) (ACGIH 1994-1995. OSHA PEL: TWA 5 ppm (22 mg/m3) skin NIOSH REL: Ca skin See Appendix A NIOSH IDLH: Potential occupational carcinogen 50 ppm
G-A3, I-2A, N-2, CP65
Chronic inhalation may cause effects similar to those of acute inhalation. May cause kidney injury. Absorption into the body leads to the formation of methemoglobin which in sufficient concentrations causes cyanosis. May cause anemia and other blood cell abnormalities. May cause reproductive and fetal effects. Contact with the skin may cause cutaneous lesions. Laboratory experiments have resulted in mutagenic effects.
May cause irritation of the digestive tract. May cause effects similar to those for inhalation exposure. May be harmful if swallowed.
Causes cyanosis, characterized by bluish-colored skin. May cause anoxia, characterized by weakness, headache, dizziness, confusion, cyanosis, weak and irregular heart beat, collapse, unconsciousness, convulsions, coma and death. May cause methemoglobinemia, cyanosis, convulsions, tachycardia, dyspnea, and death. May cause kidney damage. May cause drowsiness, unconsciousness, and central nervous system depression. Central nervous system effects may include confusion, ataxia, vertigo, tinnitus, weakness, disorientation, lethargy, drowsiness, and finally coma. May cause headache and cyanosis of the lips, mucous membranes and fingernail beds and the tongue. May cause hypoxia, which may lead to temporary sense of well being and exhiliration.
Causes skin irritation. May be absorbed through the skin. Causes symptoms similar to those of inhalation. Excessive drying of the skin may result form repeated or prolonged contact.
Causes severe eye irritation. May cause severe eye burns.
Do NOT induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid immediately.
Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. DO NOT use mouth-to-mouth respiration.
Get medical aid immediately. Immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse. Destroy contaminated shoes.
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid immediately.