- 4,4'-Bipyridinium, 1,1'-dimethyl
Colorless solid. Odorless.
Registry Numbers and Inventories.
EC Index Number
Agricultural Chemical and Pesticide; Mutagen; Human Data
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Boiling point, °C
169-170 (1.0 torr)
Decomposition point, °C
1.24 g/cm3 (20 C) (diC)hloride)
Solubility in water
Partition coefficient, pKow
-4.22 at pH 7.4
Hazards and Protection.
Keep in a cool, dry, dark location in a tightly sealed container or cylinder. Keep away from incompatible materials, ignition sources and untrained individuals. Secure and label area. Protect containers/cylinders from physical damage.
All chemicals should be considered hazardous. Avoid direct physical contact. Use appropriate, approved safety equipment. Untrained individuals should not handle this chemical or its container. Handling should occur in a chemical fume hood.
Employees should be provided with and required to use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (eight-inch minimum), and other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent skin contact with paraquat or solutions containing paraquat. Employees should be provided with and required to use dust-and splash-proof safety goggles where paraquat or solutions containing paraquat may contact the eyes.
Use NIOSH/MSHA approved respirator appropriate for exposure of concern.
Evacuate area and ventilate. Wear protective equipment. If required, use an inert absrobent. Sweep up and place in an appropriate container for disposal. Wash contaminated surfaces.
Paraquat is incompatible with alkylarylsulfonate wetting agents. Avoid contact with strong oxidizers.
Respirator selection for
Non-flammable in aqueous formulations.
IDHL: 1.5 mg/m3
Abnormally low blood pressure may develop after large ingestion. Lethargy, headache and malaise may occur initially. Cerebral edema may occur. Adverse reproductive effects have been observed in humans and experimental animals after ingestion of paraquat.
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain are common.
Progressive pulmonary fibrosis associated with dyspnea and pulmonary edema may occur 3 to 14 days following exposure to paraquat. Pulmonary hemorrhage may occur with acute exposure.
Dermatitis associated with dry and cracking skin may occur following dermal exposure. Nail atrophy may be noted. Paraquat is well absorbed through abraded or injured skin and dermal exposure may result in severe systemic toxicity and death.
Protracted opacification of the cornea may result following eye exposure. Paraquat is a mucosal irritant; epistaxis and sore throat may develop after inhalation.
The possible benefit of early removal of some ingested material by cautious gastric lavage must be weighed against potential complications of bleeding or perforation. Activated charcoal activated charcoal binds most toxic agents and can decrease their systemic absorption if administered soon after ingestion. Activated charcoal: administer charcoal as a slurry (240 ml water/30 g charcoal). Usual dose: 25 to 100 g in adults/adolescents.
There have been no substantiated cases of paraquat poisoning due to inhalation of fumes. Inhalation of spray mist does occur, but the droplets are usually large and deposit in the upper respiratory tract where they cause local irritant effects.
Remove contaminated clothing. Wash exposed area with soap and water. If symptoms persist, seek medical attention. Launder clothing before reuse.
Irrigate exposed eyes with copious amounts of tepid water for at least 15 minutes. If irritation, pain, swelling, lacrimation, or photophobia persist, the patient should be seen in a health care facility.
USCG CHRIS Code