Phenol

  • Carbolic acid
  • Hydroxybenzene
  • Phenic acid
  • Phenol hydrate
  • Phenol, molten (UN 2312)
  • Phenol, solution (UN 2821)
Formula
C6H5OH
Structure
Description
Colorless, white or pink crystalline solid, or thick liquid, with a distinct, sweet, acrid, tarry odor.
Uses
General disinfectant in soln or mixed with slaked lime, etc, for toilets, stables, cesspools, floors, drains, etc, manufacture of colorless or light-colored artificial resins, many medical & indust organic compound & dyes, reagent in chemical analysis.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS
108-95-2
EC (EINECS/ELINCS)
203-632-7
EC Index Number
604-001-00-2
EC Class
Toxic; Corrosive
R 24/25 34
RTECS
SJ3325000
RTECS class
Agricultural Chemical and Pesticide; Tumorigen; Mutagen; Reproductive Effector; Human Data; Primary Irritant
UN (DOT)
1671, 2312, 2821
Merck
12,7390
Beilstein/Gmelin
969616
Beilstein Reference
4-07-00-01638
RCRA
U188
EPA OPP
64001
Swiss Giftliste 1
G-2713
Canada DSL/NDSL
DSL
US TSCA
Listed
Austrailia AICS
Listed
New Zealand
Listed
Japan ENCS (MITI)
Listed
Korea ECL
Listed

Properties.
Formula
C6H6O
Formula mass
94.11
Melting point, °C
40.8
Boiling point, °C
181.7
Vapor pressure, mmHg
0.4 (20 C)
Vapor density (air=1)
3.24
Saturation Concentration
0.047% (20 C)
Evaporization number
<0.01 (butyl acetate = 1)
Odor Threshold Odor threshold 0.048 ppm
Critical temperature
421
Critical pressure
60.5
Density
1.0722 g/cm3 (20 C)
Solubility in water
94 g/L (25 C)
Viscosity
3.437 cp (50 C)
Surface tension
38.20 g/s2 (50 C)
Refractive index
1.5425 (20 C)
Dipole moment
1.5 (25 C)
Dielectric constant
2.95 (20 C)
pKa/pKb
9.994 (pKa)
Partition coefficient, pKow
1.46
Heat of fusion
11.3 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization
57.8 kJ/mol
Heat of combustion
-3053.5 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage
Keep away from heat, sparks, and flame. Keep away from sources of ignition. Keep container closed when not in use. Store in a tightly closed container. Keep from contact with oxidizing materials. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Refrigerator (approx 4 C). Store protected from moisture. Store protected from light.
B3 D1A D2B E
Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Use only in a well ventilated area. Minimize dust generation and accumulation. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Empty containers retain product residue, (liquid and/or vapor), and can be dangerous. Keep container tightly closed. Avoid contact with heat, sparks and flame. Do not ingest or inhale. Store protected from light. Discard contaminated shoes. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose empty containers to heat, sparks or open flames.
Protection
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators
A respiratory protection program that meets OSHA's 29 CFR 1910.134 and ANSI Z88.2 requirements or European Standard EN 149 must be followed whenever workplace conditions warrant a respirator's use.
Small spills/leaks
Absorb spill with inert material, (e.g., dry sand or earth), then place into a chemical waste container. Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Avoid generating dusty conditions. Remove all sources of ignition. Use a spark-proof tool. Provide ventilation.
Stability
Stable under normal temperatures and pressures.
Incompatibilities
Strong oxidizing agents, acids, isocyanates, acetaldehyde, nitrides (e.g. potassium nitride, sodium nitride), calcium hypochlorite, peroxomonosulfuric acid, nitrobenzene, sodium nitrite, aluminum chloride, peroxydisulfuric acid, 1,3-butadiene, boron trifluoride diethyl ether.
Decomposition
Carbon monoxide, irritating and toxic fumes and gases, carbon dioxide.

Fire.
Flash Point,°C
81
Autoignition, °C
595
Upper exp. limit, %
9.5
Lower exp. limit, %
1.3
Fire fighting
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. This material in sufficient quantity and reduced particle size is capable of creating a dust explosion. Containers may explode when heated. To extinguish fire, use water, dry chemical, chemical foam, or alcohol-resistant foam. Use water spray to cool fire-exposed containers. Use agent most appropriate to extinguish fire.
Fire potential
May burn but does not ignite readily.
Hazards
Flammable vapors when heated. Runoff from fire control water may give off poisonous gases and cause pollution. Mixtures of 9-10% phenol in air are explosive. Avoid aluminum chloride/nitrobenzene mixture, peroxodisulfuric acid, peroxomonosulfuric acid and strong oxidizing agents. Decomposes slowly on air contact. Avoid contact with strong oxidizing agents.
Combustion products
Unburned vapor is toxic Yields flammable vapors when heated, which will form explosive mixtures with air
Health
4
 
Flammability
2
 
 
Reactivity
0
 

Health.
Exposure limit(s)
OSHA PEL: TWA 5 ppm (19 mg/m3) skin NIOSH REL: TWA 5 ppm (19 mg/m3) C 15.6 ppm (60 mg/m3) 15-minute skin NIOSH IDLH: 250 ppm
Poison_Class
2
Exposure effects
Chronic inhalation and ingestion may cause effects similar to those of acute inhalation and ingestion. May cause liver and kidney damage. May cause reproductive and fetal effects. Effects may be delayed. Laboratory experiments have resulted in mutagenic effects. Repeated skin contact may cause dermatitis with dark pigmentation of the skin. Animal studies have reported the development of tumors.
   Ingestion
Harmful if swallowed. May cause severe and permanent damage to the digestive tract. May cause central nervous system depression, characterized by excitement, followed by headache, dizziness, drowsiness, and nausea. Advanced stages may cause collapse, unconsciousness, coma and possible death due to respiratory failure. May cause perforation of the digestive tract. Causes digestive tract burns with immediate pain, swelling of the throat, convulsions, and possible coma.
   Inhalation
Causes severe irritation of upper respiratory tract with coughing, burns, breathing difficulty, and possible coma. May be fatal if exposed to high concentrations. Aspiration may lead to pulmonary edema. May also cause pallor, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, darkened urine, headache, sweating, convulsions, cyanosis, unconsciousness, fatigue, pulmonary edema and coma. Inhalation at high concentrations may cause CNS depression and asphixiation.
   Skin
Harmful if absorbed through the skin. Direct skin contact results in white, wrinkled discoloration, followed by severe burns. Phenol solutions may be absorbed through the skin ra pidly to cause systemic poisoning and possible death.
   Eyes
Contact with liquid or vapor causes severe burns and possible irreversible eye damage. May cause chemical conjunctivitis and corneal damage.

First aid
 
   Ingestion
Do NOT induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid immediately.
   Inhalation
Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. DO NOT use mouth-to-mouth respiration. If breathing has ceased apply artificial respiration using oxygen and a suitable mechanical device such as a bag and a mask.
   Skin
Get medical aid immediately. Immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse. Discard contaminated clothing in a manner which limits further exposure. SPEEDY ACTION IS CRITICAL! Destroy contaminated shoes.
   Eyes
Get medical aid immediately. Do NOT allow victim to rub or keep eyes closed. Extensive irrigation is required (at least 30 minutes).

Transport.
UN number
1671, 2312, 2821
Response guide
Hazard class
6.1
Packing Group
II
 
USCG CHRIS Code
PHN
 
21 Phenols, Cresols
HS Code
2907 11 00
 
Std. Transport #
4921220
 
IMO Chemical Code
17
IMO Pollution Category
C
IMO Hazard code
S/P